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comfortable homes, clothing and food. But the Indians preferred their wigwams, skins, raw flesh and filth. Only as Christian influences taught the Indian his inner need, and how this was to be supplied, was he led to wish and work for the improvement of his outward condition and habits. Civilization does not reproduce itself. It must first be kindled and it can then be kept alive only by a power genuinely Christian.? So Wallace, in Nature, Sept. 7, 1876, vol. 14:408-412.

Griffith-Jones, Ascent through Christ, 149-168, shows that evolution does not necessarily involve development as regards particular races. There is degeneration in all the organic orders. As regards man, he may be evolving in some directions while in others he has degenerated. Lidgett, Spir. Principle of the atonement, 245, speaks of ?Prof. Clifford as pointing to the history of human progress and declaring that mankind is a risen and not a fallen race. There is no real contradiction between these two views. God has not let man go because man has rebelled against him. Where sin abounded, grace did much more abound.? The humanity which was created in Christ and which is upheld by his power has ever received reinforcements of its physical and mental life, in spite of its moral and spiritual deterioration. ?Some shrimps, by the adjustment of their body parts, go onward to the higher structure of the lobsters and crabs while others, taking up the habit of dwelling in the gills of fishes, sink downward into a state closely resembling that of the worms.? Drummond, Ascent of Man: ?When a boy?s kite comes down in our garden, we do not hold that it originally came from the clouds. So nations went up, before they came down. There is a national gravitation. The stick age preceded the stone age, but has been lost.? Tennyson: ?Evolution ever climbing after some ideal good, And Reversion ever dragging Evolution in the mud.? Evolution often becomes devolution, if not devolution. A. J. Gordon, Ministry of the Spirit. 304 ? ?The Jordan is the fitting symbol of our natural life, rising in a lofty elevation and from pure springs, but plunging steadily down till it pours itself into that Dead Sea from which there is no outlet.?

(b) Later investigations have rendered it probable that the stone age of some localities was contemporaneous with the bronze and iron ages of others. Certain tribes and nations, instead of making progress from one to the other, were never, so far back as we can trace them, without the knowledge and use of the metals. It is to be observed, moreover, that even without such knowledge and use man is not necessarily a barbarian, Though he may be a child.

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