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Chambers, in Presb. and Ref. Rev., Jan. 1892:22-34 ? On the great day of atonement ?the double offering ? one for Jehovah and the other for Azazel ? typified not only the removing of the guilt of the people, but its transfer to the odious and detestable being who was the first cause of its existence,? i. e., Satan, Lidgett, Spir. Principle of the Atonement, 112, 113 ? ?It was not the punishment which the goat bore away into the wilderness, for the idea of punishment is not directly associated with the scapegoat. It bears the sin ? the whole unfaithfulness of the community, which had defiled the holy places ? out from them, so that henceforth they may be pure. The sin offering ? representing the sinner by receiving the burden of his sin ? makes expiation by yielding up and yielding back its life to God, under conditions which represent at once the wrath and the propitiation of God.?

On the Jewish sacrifices, see Fairbairn, Typology, 1:209-223; Wunsche, Die Leiden des Messias; Jukes, O. T. Sacrifices; Smeaton, Apostle?s Doctrine of Atonement, 25-53; Kurtz, Sacrificial Worship of O. T., 120; Bible Com., 1:502-508, and Introduction to Leviticus; Candlish on Atonement, 123-142; Weber, Vom Zorne Gottes, 161-180. On passages in Leviticus, see Com., of Knobel, in Exeg. Handb. d. Alt. Test.

(e) It is not essential to this view to maintain that a formal divine institution of the rite of sacrifice, at man?s expulsion from Eden, can be proved from Scripture. Like the family and the state, sacrifice may, without such formal inculcation, possess divine sanction, and be ordained of God. The well nigh universal prevalence of sacrifice, however, together with the fact that its nature, as a bloody offering, seems to preclude man?s own invention of it, combines with certain Scripture intimations to favor the view that it was a primitive divine appointment. From the time of Moses, there can be no question as to its divine authority.

Compare the origin of prayer and worship, for which we find no formal divine injunctions at the beginnings of history. <581104>Hebrews 11:4 ? ?By faith Abel offered unto God a more excellent sacrifice than Cain, through which he had witness borne to him that he was righteous, God bearing witness in respect of his gifts. Here it may be argued that since Abel?s faith was not presumption, it must have had some injunction and promise of God to base itself upon. <010403>Gen. 4:3, 4 ? ?Cain brought of the fruit of the ground an offering unto Jehovah. And Abel, he also brought of the firstlings of his flock and of the fat thereof. And Jehovah had respect unto Abel and to his offering but unto Cain and to his offering he had not respect.?

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