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righteousness and peace have kissed each other.? Conscience demands vicariousness, for conscience declares that a gratuitous pardon would not be just.? See Knight, Colloquia Peripatetica, 88.

Lidgett, Spir. Principle of the Atonement, 219, 304 ? ?The Atonement has God-ward significance. It consists in our Lord?s endurance of death on our behalf and the spirit in which he endured death is of vital importance to the efficacy of his sacrifice, namely, obedience. God gives repentance, yet requires it; he gives atonement, yet requires it. ?Thanks be to God for his unspeakable gift? ( <470915>2 Corinthians 9:15).? Simon, in Expositor, 6:321-334 (for substance) ? ?As in prayer we ask God to energize us and enable us to obey his law and he answers by entering our hearts and obeying in us and for us. As we pray for strength in affliction and find him helping us by putting his Spirit into us, and suffering in us and for us; so in atonement, Christ, the manifested God, obeys and suffers in our stead. Even the moral theory implies substitution also. God in us obeys his own law and bears the sorrows that sin has caused. Why can he not, in human nature, also endure the penalty of sin? The possibility of this cannot be consistently denied by any who believe in divine help granted in answer to prayer. The doctrine of the atonement and the doctrine of prayer stand or fall together.?

See on the whole subject, Shedd, Discourses and Essays, 272-324, Philosophy of History, 65-69, and Dogmatic Theology, 2:401-463; Magee, Atonement and Sacrifice, 27, 53, 253; Edwards?s Works, 4:140 sq.; Weber, Vom Zorne Gottes, 214-334; Owen, on Divine

Justice, in Works, 10:500-512; Philippi, Glaubenslehre, iv, 2:27-114; Hopkins, Works, 1:319-363; Schoberlein, in Studien und Kritiken, 1845:267-318, and 1847:7-70, also in Herzog, Encyclopadie, art.: Versohnung; Jahrbuch f. d. Theol., 3:713, and 8:213; Macdonnell, Atonement, 115-214; Luthardt, Saving Truths, 114-138; Baird, Elohim Revealed, 605-637; Lawrence, in Bibliotheca Sacra, 20:332-339: Kreibig, Versohnungslehre; Waffle, in Bap. Rev., 1882:263-286; Dorner, Glaubenslehre, 2:641-662 (Syst. Doct., 4:107-124); Remensnyder, The Atonement and Modern Thought.

Secondly, the Atonement as related to Humanity in Christ.

The Ethical theory of the atonement holds that Christ stands in such relation to humanity, that what God?s holiness demands that Christ is under obligation to pay, longs to pay, inevitably does pay, and pays so fully, in

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