captive by faith, which is the nascent true reason that despairs of itself and trustfully lays hold of objective Christianity.?
B. Rationalism, on the other hand, holds reason to be the ultimate source of all religious truth, while Scripture is authoritative only so far as its revelations agree with previous conclusions of reason, or can be rationally demonstrated. Every form of rationalism, therefore, commits at least one of the following errors:
(a) That of confounding reason with mere reasoning, or the exercise of the logical intelligence.
(b) That of ignoring the necessity of a holy affection as the condition of all right reason in religious things.
(c) That of denying our dependence in our present state of sin upon god?s past revelations of himself.
(d) That of regarding the unaided reason, even its normal and unbiased state, as capable of discovering, comprehending, and demonstrating all religious truth.
Reason must not be confounded with ratiocination, or mere reasoning. Shall we follow reason? Yes, but not individual reasoning, against the testimony of those who are better informed than we; nor by insisting on demonstration, where probable evidence alone is possible; not by trusting solely to the evidence of the senses, when spiritual things are in question. Coleridge, in replying to those who argued that all knowledge comes to us from the senses, says: ?At any rate we must bring to all facts the light in which we see them.? This the Christian does. The light of love reveals much that would otherwise be invisible. Wordsworth, Excursion, book 5
(598) ? ?The mind?s repose on evidence is not likely to be ensured by act of naked reason. Moral truth is no mechanic structure, built by rule.?
Rationalism is the mathematical theory of knowledge. Spinoza?s Ethics is an illustration of it. It would deduce the universe from an axiom. Dr. Hodge very wrongly described rationalism as ?an overuse of reason.? It is rather the use of an abnormal, perverted, improperly conditi0ned reason; see Hodge, Systematic Theology, 1:34, 39, 55, and criticism by Miller, in his Fetich in theology. The phrase ?sanctified intellect? means simply intellect accompanied by right affections toward God, and trained to work under their influence. Bishop Butler: ?Let reason be kept to, but let not such poor creatures as we are go on objecting to infinite scheme that we
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