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three times be resorted to as a substitute. Catechetical instruction, repentance, fasting and prayer must precede the baptismal rite.

Dexter, in his True Story of John Smyth and Sebaptism maintains that immersion was a new thing in England in 1641. But if so, it was new, as Congregationalism was new ? a newly restored practice and ordinance of apostolic times. For reply to Dexter, see Long, in Bap. Rev., Jan. 1883:12, 13, who tells us, on the authority of Blunt?s Ann. Book of Com. Prayer, that from 1085 to 1549, the ?Salisbury Use? was the accepted mode and this provided for the child?s trine immersion. ?The Prayerbook of Edward VI succeeded to the Salisbury Use in 1549 but, in this too, immersion has the place of honor ? affusion is only for the weak. The English church has never sanctioned sprinkling (Blunt 226 ). In 1664, the Westminster Assembly said ?Sprinkle or Pour,? thus annulling what Christ commanded 1600 years before. Queen Elizabeth was immersed in

1533. If in 1641 immersion had been so generally and so long disused that men saw it with wonder and regarded it as a novelty, then the more distinct, emphatic and peculiarly their own was the work of the Baptists. They come before the world, with no partners or rivals or abettors or sympathizers, as the restorers and preservers of Christian baptism.?

(f) From the doctrine and practice of the Greek Church.

De Stourdza, the greatest modern theologian of the Greek Church, writes: ? bapti>zw signifies literally and always ?to plunge.? Baptism and immersion are therefore identical, and to say ?baptism by aspersion? is as if one should say ?immersion by aspersion,? or any other absurdity of the same nature. The Greek Church maintain that the Latin Church, instead of a baptismo>v , practice a mere rJantismo>v ? instead of baptism, a mere sprinkling? ? quoted in Conant on Matthew, appendix, 99. See also Broadus on Immersion, 18.

The evidence that immersion is the original mode of baptism is well summed up by Dr. Marcus Dods, in his article on Baptism in Hastings? Dictionary of Christ and the Apostles. Dr. Dods defines baptism as ?a rite wherein by immersion in water, the participant symbolizes and signalizes his transition from an impure to a pure life, his death to a past he abandons and his birth to a future he desires.? As regards the ?mode of baptism,? he remarks: ?That the normal mode was by immersion of the whole body may be inferred

(a) from the meaning of baptizo , which is the intensive or frequentative form of bapto, ?I dip,? and denotes to immerse or submerge. The point is, that ?dip?

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