author of the book of Enoch afterwards made use, the weight of modern scholarship inclines to the opinion that the book itself was written as early as 170-70 BC, and that Jude quoted from it; see Hastings? Bible Dictionary, Book of Enoch; Sanday, Bampton Lect. on Inspiration, 95, ?If Paul could quote from Gentile poets ( <441728>Acts 17:28; <560112>Titus 1:12), it is hard to understand why Jude could not cite a work which was certainly in high standing among the faithful?; see Schodde, Book of Enoch, 41, with the Introduction by Ezra Abbot. While Jude 14 gives us the only direct and express quotation from an Apocryphal book, Jude 6 and 9 contain allusions to the Book of Enoch and to the Assumption of Moses; see Charles, Assumption of Moses, 62. In <580103>Hebrews 1:3, we have words taken from Wisdom 7:26; and <581134>Hebrews 11:34-38 is a reminiscence of 1 Maccabees.
(b) From the testimony of Jewish authorities, ancient and modern, who declare the same books to be sacred, and only the same books that are now comprised in our Old Testament Scriptures.
Josephus enumerates twenty-two of these books ?which are justly accredited? ( qei~a ? Niese, and Hastings? Dictionary, 3:607). Our present Hebrew Bible makes twenty four, by separating Ruth from Judges, and Lamentations from Jeremiah; See Josephus, Against Apion, 1:8; Smith?s Bible Dictionary, article on the Canon, 1:359, 360. Philo (born 20 BC) never quotes an Apocryphal book, although he does quote from nearly all the books of the Old Testament; see Ryle, Philo and Holy Scripture. George Adam Smith, Modern Criticism amid Preaching, 7 ? ?The theory which ascribed the Canon of the Old Testament to a single decision of the Jewish church in the days of its inspiration is not a theory supported by facts. The growth of the Old Testament Canon was very gradual. Virtually it began in 621 BC, with the acceptance by all Judah of Deuteronomy, and the adoption of the whole Law, or first five books of the Old Testament under Nehemiah in 445 BC Then came the prophets before 200 BC, and the Hagiographa from a century to two centuries later. The strict definition of the last division was not complete by the time of Christ. Christ seems to testify to the Law, the Prophets, and the Psalm s; yet neither Christ nor his apostles make any quotation from Ezra, Nehemiah, Esther, Canticles, or Ecclesiastes, the last of which books were not yet recognized by all the Jewish schools. But while Christ is the chief authority for the Old Testament, he was also its first critic. He rejected some parts of the Law and was indifferent to many others. He enlarged the sixth and seventh commandments, and reversed the eye for an eye, and the permission of divorce: touched the leper, and reckoned all foods
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