hereditary polytheistic faith, but merely as an exclusive claim to worship and obedience.? E. G. Robinson says, in a similar strain, ?we can explain the idolatrous tendencies of the Jews only on the supposition that they had lurking notions that their God was a merely national god. Moses seems to have understood the doctrine of the divine unity, but the Jews did not.?

To the views of both Hill and Robinson we reply that the primitive intuition of God is not that of many, but that of One. Paul tells us that polytheism is a later and retrogressive stage of development, due to man?s sin ( <450119>Romans 1:19-25). We prefer the statement of McLaren: ?The plural Elohim is not a survival from a polytheistic stage, but expresses the divine nature in the manifoldness of its fullnesses and perfections, rather than in the abstract unity of its being? ? and, we may add, expresses the divine nature in its essential fullness, as a complex of personalities. See Conant, Gesenius? Hebrew Grammar, 198; Green, Hebrew Grammar, 306; Girdlestone, Old Testament Synonyms, 38, 53; Alexander on

<191107> Psalm 11:7; 29:1; 58:11. B. Passages relating to the Angel of Jehovah.

(a) The angel of Jehovah identifies himself with Jehovah;

(b) he is identified with Jehovah by others;

(c) he accepts worship due only to God. Though the phrase ?angel of Jehovah? is sometimes used in the later Scriptures to denote a merely human messenger or created angel, it seems in the Old Testament, with hardly more than a single exception, to designate the pre-incarnate Logos, whose manifestations in angelic or human form foreshadowed his final coming in the flesh.

(a) ( <012211>Genesis 22:11,16 ? ?the angel of Jehovah called unto him [Abraham, when about to sacrifice Isaac] By myself have I sworn, saith Jehovah?; 31:11, 13 ? ?the angel of God said unto me [Jacob]? I am the God of Beth-el.?

(b) <011609>Genesis 16:9,13 ? ?angel of Jehovah said unto her? and she called the name of Jehovah that spake unto her, Thou art a God that seeth?; 48:15,16 ? ?the God who bath fed me ? the angel who hath redeemed me.?

<020302> Exodus 3:2, 4, 5 ? ?the angel of Jehovah appeared unto him? God called unto him out of the midst of the bush? put off thy shoes from off thy feet?; <071320>Judges 13:20-22 ? ?angel of Jehovah ascended Manoah and his

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