first, because the object is the only determinant for reflective thought. But the instrument of philosophy is thought itself. First then, we must study Logic o, or the theory of thought; secondly, Epistemology, or the theory of knowledge; thirdly, Metaphysics, or the theory of being.?
Professor George M. Forbes on the New Psycology: ?Locke and Kant represent the two tendencies in philosophy ? the emperical, physical, scientific, on the cone hand, and the rational, metaphysical, logical on the other. Locke furnishes the basis for the associational schemes of Hartley, the Mills, and Bain; Kant for the idealistic scheme of Fichte, Schelling, and Hegel. The two are not contradictory, but complementary, and the Scotch Reid and Hamilton combine them both, reacting against the extreme empiricism and skepticism of Hume. Hickok, Porter, and McCosh represented the Scotch school in America. It was exclusively an; analytical its psychology was the faculty-psychology; it represented the mind as a bundle of faculties. The unitary philosophy of T. H. Green, Edward Caird, in Great Britain, and in America, of W. T. Harris, George
S. Morris, and John Dewey, was a reaction against this faculty- psychology, under the influence of Hegel. A second reaction under the influence of the Herbartian doctrine of apperception substituted function for faculty, making all the processes phases of apperception. G. F. Stout and J. Mark Baldwin represent this psychology. A third reaction comes from the influence of physical science. All attempts to unify are relegated to a metaphysical Hades. There is nothing but states and processes. The only unity is the laws of their coexistence and succession. There is nothing a priori . Wundt identifies apperception with will, and regards it as the unitary principle. Kulpe and Titchener find no self, or will, or soul, but treat these as inferences little warranted. Their psychology is psychology without a soul. The old psychology was exclusively static , while the new emphasizes the genetic point of view. Growth and development are the leading ideas of Herbert Spencer, Preyer, Tracy and Stanley Hall. William James is explanatory, while Gorge T. Ladd is descriptive. Cattell, Scripture, and Musterberg apply the methods of Fechner, and the Psychological Review is their organ. Their error is in their negative attitude. The old psychology is needed to supplement the new. It has greater scope and more practical significance.? On the relation of theology to philosophy and to science, see Luthardt, Compend. Der Dogmatik,4; Hagenbach, Encyclodedie, 109.
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