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supererogatory work voluntarily done, in consequence of which it is ?fitting? that forgiveness should be bestowed on sinners. Yet his theory served to hand down to later theologians the great idea of the objective atonement.?

(e) It is defective in holding to a merely external transfer of the merit of Christ?s work, while it does not clearly state the internal ground of that transfer, in the union of the believer with Christ.

Thomas Aquinas, Summa, pars 3, qu«s. 8 furnished this needed supplement, namely, the doctrine of the Union of the Believer with Christ. The Anselmic theory is Romanist in its tendency, as the theory next to be mentioned is Protestant in its tendency. P. S. Moxom asserts that salvation is not by substitution, but by incorporation. We prefer to say that salvation is by substitution but that the substitution is by incorporation. Incorporation involves substitution, and another?s pain inures to my account. Christ, being incorporate with humanity, all the exposures and liabilities of humanity fell upon him. Simon, Reconciliation by Incarnation, is an attempt to unite the two elements of the doctrine.

Lidgett, Spir. Prin. of Atonement, 132-189 ? ?As Anselm represents it, Christ?s death is not ours in any such sense that we can enter into it. Bushnell justly charges that it leaves no moral dynamic in the Cross.? For criticism of Anselm, see John Caird Fund. Ideas of Christianity, 2:172- 193: Thomasius, Christi Person und Werk, III, 2:230-241; Philippi, Glaubenslehre, xv, 2:70 sq.; Baur, Dogmengeschichte, 2:416 sq.; Shedd, Hist. Doct., 2:273-286; Dale, Atonement, 279-292; McIlvaine, Wisdom of Holy Scripture, 196-199; Kreibig, Versohnungslehre, 176-178.

6. The Ethical Theory of the Atonement.

In propounding what we conceive to be the true theory of the atonement, it seems desirable to divide our treatment into two parts. No theory can be satisfactory which does not furnish a solution of the two problems:

1. What did the atonement accomplish? In other words, what was the object of Christ?s death? The answer to this question must be a description of the atonement in its relation to holiness in God.

2. What were the means used? In other words, how could Christ justly die? The answer to this question must be a description of the atonement as arising from Christ?s relation to humanity. We take up these two parts of the subject in order.

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