therefore exaggerates the effect of this divine working. Universal grace does not remove man?s depravity or man?s condemnation as is evident from a proper interpretation of <450512>Romans 5:12-19 and of <490203>Ephesians 2:3. It only puts side by side with that depravity and condemnation influences and impulses which counteract the evil and urge the sinner to repentance: <430105>John 1:5 ? ?the light shineth in the darkness; and the darkness apprehended it not.? John Wesley also referred to <450518>Romans 5:18 ? ?through one act of righteousness the free gift came unto all men to justification of life? ? but here the ?all men? is conterminous with ?the many? who are ?made righteous? in verse 19 and with the ?all? who are ?made alive? in <461522>1 Corinthians 15:22. In other words, the ?all? in this case is ?all believers? else the passage teaches, not universal gift of the Spirit, but universal salvation.

Armenianism holds to inherited sin, in the sense of infirmity and evil tendency, but not to inherited guilt. John Wesley, however, by holding also that the giving of ability is a matter of grace and not of justice, seems to imply that there is a common guilt as well as a common sin, before consciousness. American Armenians are more logical, but less Scriptural. Sheldon, Syst. Christian Doctrine, 321, tells us that ?guilt cannot possibly be a matter of inheritance and consequently, original sin can be affirmed of the posterity of Adam only in the sense of hereditary corruption, which first becomes an occasion of guilt when it is embraced by the will of the individual.? How little the Armenian means by ?sin,? can be inferred from the saying of Bishop Simpson that ?Christ inherited sin.? He meant of course only physical and intellectual infirmity, without a tinge of guilt. ?A child inherits its parent?s nature,? it is said, ?not as a punishment, but by natural law.? We reply that this natural law is itself an expression of God?s moral nature. The inheritance of evil can be justified only upon the ground of a common non-conformity to God in both the parent and the child or a participation of each member in the common guilt of the race.

In the light of our preceding treatment, we can estimate the element of good and the element of evil in Pfleiderer, Philos. Religion, 1:232 ? ?It is an exaggeration when original sin is considered as personally imputable guilt. It is going too far when it is held to be the whole state of the natural man and yet the actually present good, the ?original grace,? is overlooked. We may say, with Schleiermacher, that original sin is the common deed and common guilt of the human race. But the individual always participates in this collective guilt in the measure in which he takes part with his personal doing in the collective act that is directed to the furtherance of the bad.? Dabney, Theology, 315, 316 ? Armenianism is orthodox as to the legal consequences of Adam?s sin to his posterity but

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