(c) It cannot be maintained without denying all providential interference in the history of creation and the subsequent history of the world. But the introduction of life, the creation of man, incarnation, regeneration, the communion of intelligent creatures with a present God and inter-positions of God in secular history, are matters of fact.

Deism therefore continually tends to atheism. Upton, Hibbert Lectures, 287 ? ?The defect of deism is that, on the human side, it treats all men as isolated individuals, forgetful of the immanent divine nature which interrelates them and in a measure unifies them. On the divine side, it separates men from God and makes the relation between them a purely external one.? Ruskin: ?The divine mind is as visible in its full energy of operation on every lowly bank and moldering stone as in the lifting of the pillars of heaven and settling the foundations of the earth. To the rightly perceiving mind there is the same majesty, the same power, the same unity and the same perfection manifested in the casting of the clay as in the scattering of the cloud, in the moldering of dust as in the kindling of the day star.? See Pearson, Infidelity, 87; Hanne, Idee der absoluten Personlichkeit, 76.

2. Continuous Creation.

This view regards the universe as from moment to moment the result of a new creation. Theologians Edwards, Hopkins and Emmons of New England held this view and, more recently in Germany, by Rothe.

Edwards, Works, 2:486-490, quotes and defends Dr. Taylor?s utterance: ?God is the original of all being and the only cause of all natural effects.? Edwards himself says: ?God?s upholding created substance, or causing its existence in each successive moment is altogether equivalent to an immediate production out of nothing at each moment.? He argues that the past existence of a thing cannot be the cause of its present existence, because a thing cannot act at a time and place where it is not. ?This is equivalent to saying that God cannot produce an effect which shall last for one moment beyond the direct exercise of his creative power. What man can do, God, it seems, cannot? (A. S. Carman). Hopkins, Works, l:164 ? l67 ? Preservation ?is really continued creation.? Emmons, Works,

4:363-389, esp. 381 ? ?Since all men are dependent agents, all their motions, exercises, or actions must originate in a divine efficiency.? 2:683 ? ?There is but one true and satisfactory answer to the question which has been agitated for centuries: ?whence came evil?? and that is: It came from the first great Cause of all things. It is as consistent with the moral rectitude of the Deity to produce sinful as holy exercises in the minds of

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