are truths, which every one who writes on the Atonement assumes. The doctrine of the Atonement has for its task to explain how this work is done. Dr. Stevens makes no contribution whatever to its fulfillment. He grants that we have in Paul ?the theory of a substitutive expiation.? But he finds something else in Paul which he thinks a more adequate rendering of the apostle?s Christian experience ? the Idea, namely, of dying with Christ and rising with him and on the strength of accepting this last he feels at liberty to drop the substitutive expiation overboard, something to be explained from Paul?s controversial position or from his Pharisaic inheritance, something at all events which has no permanent value for the Christian mind. The experience is dependent on the method. Paul did not die with Christ as an alternative to having Christ die with him; he died with Christ wholly and solely because Christ died for him. It was the meaning carried by the last two words ? the meaning unfolded in the theory of substitutive expiation ? which had the moral motive in it to draw Paul into union with his Lord in life and death. On Dr. Stevens? own showing, Paul held the two ideas side by side for him the mystical union with Christ was only possible through the acceptance of truths with which Dr. Stevens does not know what to do.?

(g) This theory would confine the influence of the atonement to those who have heard of it, thus excluding patriarchs and heathen. But the Scriptures represent Christ as being the Savior of all men in the sense of securing them grace which, but for his atoning work, could never have been bestowed consistently with the divine holiness.

Hovey: ?The man-ward influence of the atonement is far more extensive than the moral influence of it.? Christ is Advocate, not with the sinner, but with the Father. While the Spirit?s work has moral influence over the hearts of men, the Son secures, through the presentation of his blood, in heaven, the pardon which can come only from God ( <620201>1 John 2:1 ? ?we have an advocate with the Father, Jesus Christ the righteous and he is the propitiation for our sins ). Hence 1:9 ? ?If we confess our sins, he [God] is faithful and righteous [faithful to his promise and righteous to Christ] to forgive us our sins.? Hence the publican does not first pray for change of heart but for mercy upon the ground of sacrifice ( <421813>Luke 18:13 ? ?God, be thou merciful to me a sinner,? but literally: God be propitiated toward me the sinner?). See Balfour, in Brit. and For. Ev. Rev., Apr. 1884:230-254; Martin, Atonement, 216-237; Theol. Eclectic, 4:364-409 .

Gravitation kept the universe stable long before man discovered it. So the atonement of Christ was inuring to the salvation of men, long before they suspected its existence. The ?Light of the world? ( <430812>John 8:12) has

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