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G. S. Fullerton, Sameness and Identity, 6, 32, 67 ? ?Heracleitus of Ephesus declared it impossible to enter the same river twice. Cratylus replied that the same river could not be entered once. The kinds of sameness are

1. Thing same with itself at any one instant,

2. Same pain today I felt yesterday = a like pain,

3. I see the same tree at different times = two or more percepts represent the same object,

4. Two plants belonging to the same class are called the same,

5. Memory gives us the same object that we formerly perceived but the object is not the past, it is the memory-image which represents it,

6. Two men perceive the same object they have like percepts, while both percepts are only representative of the same object,

7. External thing same with its representative in consciousness, or with the substance or noumenon supposed to underlie it.?

Ladd, Philosophy of Mind, 153, 255 ? ?What is called ?remaining the same,? in the case of all organic beings is just this, remaining faithful to some immanent idea, while undergoing a great variety of changes in the pursuit, as it were, of the idea. Self-consciousness and memory are themselves processes of becoming. The mind that does not change, in the way of growth, has no claim to be called mind. One cannot be conscious of changes without also being conscious of being the very being that is changed. When he loses this consciousness, we say that ?he has lost, his mind.? Amid changes of its ideas the ego remains permanent because it is held within limits by the power of some immanent idea. Our bodies as such have only a formal existence. They are a stream in constant flow and are ever changing. My body is only a temporary loan from Nature to be repaid at death.?

With regard to the meaning of the term ?identity,? as applied to material things, see Porter, Human Intellect, 631 ? ?Here the substance is called the same, by a loose analogy taken from living agents and their gradual accretion and growth.? The Euphrates is the same stream that flowed, ?When high in Paradise By the four rivers the first roses blew,? even though after that time, the flood or deluge, stopped its flow and obliterated all the natural features of the landscape. So this flowing organism which

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