of the death received through Adam. The statement of the parallel is begun in Verse 12: ?as through one man sin entered into the world and death through sin and so death passed unto all men, for that all sinned,? so (as we may complete the interrupted sentence) by one man righteousness entered into the world and life by righteousness and so life passed upon all men, because all became partakers of this righteousness. Both physical and spiritual death is meant. That it is physical, is shown (1) from verse 14, (2) from the allusion to Gen. 3:19, (3) from the universal Jewish and Christian assumption that physical death was the result of Adam?s sin. See Wisdom 2:23, 24; Sirach 25:24; 2Esdras 3:7, 21; 7:11, 46, 48, 118; 9:19; <430844>John 8:44; <461521>1 Corinthians 15:21. That it is spiritual, is evident from <450518>Romans 5:18, 21, where zwh> is the opposite of qa>natov , and from <550110>2 Timothy 1:10, where the same contrast occurs. The ou}twv in verse 12 shows the mode in which historically death has come to all, namely, that the one sinned and thereby brought death to all. In other words, death is the effect, of which the sin of the one is the cause. By Adam?s act, physical and spiritual death passed upon all men, because all sinned. eJf w|+ = because, on the ground of the fact that, for the reason that, all sinned. pa>ntev = all, without exception, infants included, as verse 14 teaches.

? Hmarton mentions the particular reason why all men died, viz., because all men sinned. It is the aorist of momentary past action ? sinned when, through the one, sin entered into the world. It is as much as to say, ?because, when Adam sinned, all men sinned in and with him.? This is proved by the succeeding explanatory context (verses 15-19), in which it is reiterated five times in succession that one and only one sin is the cause of the death that befalls all men. Compare <461522>1 Corinthians 15:22. The senses ?all were sinful,? ?all became sinful,? are inadmissible, for ajmarta>nein is not aJmartwlo<n gi>gesqai or ei=nai . The sense ?death passed upon all men, because all have consciously and personally sinned,? is contradicted

(1) by verse 14, in which it is asserted that certain persons who are a part of pa>ntev the subject of h[marton and who suffer the death which is the penalty of sin, did not commit sins resembling Adam?s first sin, i. e., individual and conscious transgressions and

(2) by verses 15-19, in which it is asserted repeatedly that only one sin and not millions of transgressions is the cause of the death of all men.

This sense would seem to require ejf w=| pa>ntev aJmarta>nousin . Neither can XXX have the sense ?were accounted and treated as sinners? for

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