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with an eternal I.? When his wars had left almost no able-bodied men in France, he called for the boys, saying: ?A boy can stop a bullet as well as a man,? and so the French nation lost two inches of stature. Before the battle of Leipzig when there was prospect of unexampled slaughter, he exclaimed, ?What are the lives of a million of men, to carry out the will of a man like me?? His most truthful epitaph was, ?The little butchers of Ghent to Napoleon the Great? [butcher]. Heine represents Napoleon as saying to the world, ?Thou shalt have no other gods before me.? Memoirs of Madame de Remusat, 1:225 ? ?At a f?te given by the city of Paris to the Emperor, the repertory of inscriptions being exhausted, a brilliant device was resorted to. Over the throne, of which he was to occupy were placed in letters of gold, the following words from the Holy Scriptures: ?I am the I am.? And no one seemed to be scandalized.? Iago, in Shakespeare?s Othello, is the greatest villain of all literature but Coleridge, Works, 4:180, calls attention to his passionless character. His sin is, like that of Goethe and of Napoleon, sin not of the flesh but of the intellect and will.

(d) It leads to absurd conclusions, as, for example, that asceticism, by weakening the power of sense, must weaken the power of sin; that man becomes less sinful as his senses fail with age; that disembodied spirits are necessarily holy; that death is the only Redeemer.

Asceticism only turns the current of sin in other directions. Spiritual pride and tyranny take the place of fleshly desires. The miser clutches his gold more closely as he nears death. Satan has no physical organism yet he is the prince of evil. Not our own death but Christ?s death saves us. But when Rousseau?s ?mile comes to die, he calmly declares, ?I am delivered from the trammels of the body and am myself without contradiction.? At the age of seventy-five Goethe wrote to Eckermann: ?I have ever been esteemed one of fortune?s favorites nor can I complain of the course my life has taken. Yet truly there has been nothing but care and toil and I may say that I have never had four weeks of genuine pleasure? Shedd, Dogm. Theology, 2:743 ? ?When the authoritative demand of Jesus Christ to confess sin and beg remission through atoning blood is made to David Hume or David Strauss or John Stuart Mill, none of whom were sensualists, it wakens intense mental hostility.?

(e) It interprets Scripture erroneously. In passages like <450718>Romans 7:18 ? oujk oijkei~ ejmoi> tou~t ejstin ejn th—| sarki> mou ajgaqo>n ? sa>rx , or flesh, signifies not man?s body but man?s whole being when destitute of the Spirit of God. The Scriptures distinctly recognize the seat of sin as being in

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