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which is an effect without being a cause. It is the highest force which nature has yet developed ? the last consummate blossom of all her marvelous works.? Yet Maudsley argues that the mind itself has power to prevent insanity. This implies that there is an owner of the instrument endowed with power and responsibility to keep it in order. Man can do much, but God can do more.

H. Special objections to the deterministic theory of the will. Determinism holds that man?s actions are uniformly determined by motives acting upon his character and that he has no power to change these motives or to act contrary to them. This denial that the will is free has serious and pernicious consequences in theology. On the one hand, it weakens even if it does not destroy man?s conviction with regard to responsibility, sin, guilt and retribution and so obscures the need of atonement. On the other hand, it weakens, if it does not destroy man?s faith in his own power as well as in God?s power of initiating action, and so obscures the possibility of atonement.

Determinism is exemplified in Omar Kh-yy-m?s Rub-iyat: ?With earth?s first clay they did the last man knead, And there of the last harvest sowed the seed; And the first morning of creation wrote What the last dawn of reckoning shall read.? William James, Will to Believe, 145-183, shows that determinism involves pessimism or subjectivism ? good and evil are merely means of increasing knowledge. The result of subjectivism is in theology antinomianism, in literature romanticism, in practical life sensuality or sensualism, as in Rousseau, Renan and Zola. Hutton, review of Clifford in Contemp. Thoughts and Thinkers, 1:254 ? ?The determinist says there would be no moral quality in actions that did not express previous tendency, i.e., a man is responsible only for what he cannot help doing. No effort against the grain will be made by him who believes that his interior mechanism settles for him whether he shall make it or no.? Royce, World and Individual, 2:342 ? ?Your unique voices in the divine symphony are no more the voices of moral agents than are the stones of a mosaic.? The French monarch announced that all his subjects should be free to choose their own religion but he added that nobody should choose a different religion from the king?s. ?Johnny, did you give your little sister the choice between those two apples?? ?Yes, Mamma. I told her she could have the little one or none, and she chose the little one,? Hobson was always choose the last horse in the row. The bartender with revolver in hand met all criticisms upon the quality of his liquor with the remark: ?You?ll drink that whisky, and you?ll like it too!?

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