body, soul and spirit and that soul and spirit are as distinct from each other as are soul and body.

The advocates of this view differ among themselves as to the nature of the yuch> and its relation to the other elements of our being; some (as Delitzsch) holding that the yuch> is an efflux of the pneu~ma , distinct in substance, but not in essence, even as the divine Word is distinct from God, while yet he is God; others (as Goschel) regarding the yuch> , not as a distinct substance, but as a resultant of the union of the pneu~ma and the sw~ma . Still others (as Cremer) hold the yuch> to be the subject of the personal life whose principle is the pneu~ma . Heard, Tripartite Nature of Man, 103 ? ?God is the Creator ex traduce of the animal and intellectual part of every man but not so with the spirit. It proceeds from God, not by creation, but by emanation.?

We regard the trichotomous theory as untenable, not only for the reasons already urged in proof of the dichotomous theory, but from the following additional considerations:

(a) Pneu~ma , as well as yuch> , is used of the brute creation.

<210321> Ecclesiastes 3:21 ? ?Who knoweth the spirit of man whether it goeth [margin ?that goeth?] upward, and the spirit of the beast, whether it goeth [margin ?that goeth?] downward to the earth?? <661603>Revelation 16:3 ? ?And the second poured out his bowl into the sea; and it became blood, as of a dead man; and every living soul died, even the things that were in the sea? = the fish.

(b) Yuch> is ascribed to Jehovah.

<300608> Amos 6:8 ? ?The Lord Jehovah hath sworn by himself? (lit. ?by his soul,? LXX ejauto>n ); <234201>Isaiah 42:1 ? ?my chosen in whom my soul delighteth?; <240909>Jeremiah 9:9 ? ?Shall I not visit them for these things? saith Jehovah; shall not my soul be avenged?? <581038>Hebrews 10:38 ? ?my righteous one shall live by faith: And if he shrink back, my soul hath no pleasure in him.?

(c) The disembodied dead are called yucai> .

Revelations 6:9 ? ?I saw underneath the altar the souls of them that had been slain for the word of God?; cf . 20:4 ? ?souls of them that had been beheaded.?

(d) The highest exercises of religion are attributed to the yuch> .

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