bog-iron ore, appearing lower down than any animal remains, are the result of preceding vegetation and that animal forms, whenever and wherever existing, must subsist upon and presuppose the vegetable. The Eozoon is of necessity preceded by the Eophyte. If it be said that fruit trees could not have been created on the third day, we reply that since the creation of the vegetable kingdom was to be described at one stroke and no mention of it was to be made subsequently, this is the proper place to introduce it and to mention its main characteristic forms. See Bible Commentary, 1:36; LeConte, Elements of Geology, 136, 285.

6. The vapors, which have hitherto shrouded the planet are now cleared away as preliminary to the introduction of life in its higher animal forms. The consequent appearance of solar light is described in verses 16 and 17 as a making of the sun, moon, and stars, and a giving of them as luminaries to the earth. Compare ( <010913>Genesis 9:13 ? ?I do set my bow in the cloud.? The rainbow had existed in nature before but was now appointed to serve a peculiar purpose and so in the record of creation sun, moon and stars, which existed before were appointed as visible lights for the earth. The earth was no longer self-luminous, and the light of the sun struggling through the earth?s encompassing clouds was not sufficient for the higher forms of life which were to come.

7. The exhibition of the four grand types (radiate, molluscan, articulate and vertebrate) of the animal kingdom which characterizes the next stage of geological progress. These are represented in verses 20 and 21 as a creation of the lower animals ? those that swarm in the water and the creeping and flying species of the land. Huxley, in his American Addresses, objects to this assigning of the origin of birds to the fifth day, and declares that terrestrial animals exist in lower strata than any form of bird ? birds appearing only in the Oolitic, or New Red Sandstone. But we reply that the fifth day is devoted to sea productions, while land productions belong to the sixth. Birds, according to the latest science, are sea productions, not land productions. They originated from Saurians, and were, at the first, flying lizards. There being but one mention of sea productions, all these, birds included, are crowded into the fifth day. Thus Genesis anticipates the latest science. On the ancestry of birds, see Pop. Science Monthly, March, 1884:606; Baptist Magazine, 1877:505.

8. The introduction of mammals (viviparous species) which are eminent above all other vertebrates for a quality prophetic of a high moral purpose, that of suckling their young (cattle and beasts of prey), is indicated in verses 24 and 25 by the creation, on the sixth day.

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