(a) that order and useful collocation may exist without being purposed ? for we are compelled by our very mental constitution to deny this in all cases where the order and collocation pervade a system:
(b) that order and useful collocation may result from the mere operation of physical forces and laws ? for these very forces and laws imply, instead of excluding, an originating and superintending intelligence and will.
Janet, in his work on Final Causes, 8, denies that finality is a primitive conviction, like causality, and calls it the result of an induction. He therefore proceeds from (1) marks of order and useful collocation to (2) finality in nature, and then to (3) an intelligent cause of this finality or ?pre-conformity to future event.? So Diman, Theistic Argument, 105, claims simply that, as change requires cause, so orderly change requires intelligent cause. We have shown, however, that induction and argument of every kind presupposes intuitive belief in final cause. Nature does not give us final cause; but no more does she give us efficient cause. Mind gives us both, and gives them as clearly upon one experience as after a thousand. Ladd: ?Things have mind in them; else they could not be minded by us.? The Duke of Argyll told Darwin that it seemed to him wholly impossible to ascribe the adjustments of nature to any other agency than that of mind. ?Wells? said Darwin, ?that impression has often come upon me with overpowering force. But then, at other times, it all seems ? ; ?and then he passed his hands over his eyes, as if to indicate the passing of a vision out of sight. Darwinism is not a refutation of ends in nature, but only of a particular theory with regard to the way in which ends are realized in the organic world. Darwin would begin with an infinitesimal germ, and make all the subsequent development unteleological; see Schurman, Belief in God, 193.
(a) Illustration of unpurposed order in the single throwing of ?double sixes,? ? constant throwing of double sixes indicates design. So arrangement of detritus at mouth of river, and warming pans sent to the West Indies, ? useful but not purposed. Momerie, Christianity and Evolution, 72 ? ?It is only within narrow limits that seemingly purposeful arrangements are produced by chance. And therefore, as the signs of purpose increase, the presumption in favor of their accidental origin diminishes.? Elder, Ideas from Nature, 81, 82 ? ?The uniformity of a boy?s marbles shows them to be products of design. A single one might be accidental, but a dozen cannot be. So atomic uniformity indicates manufacture.? Illustrations of purposed order, in Beattie?s garden, Tillotson?s blind men, Kepler?s salad. Dr. Carpenter: ?The atheist is like a man examining the machinery of a great mill, who, finding that
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