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cannot be guilty, unless that inborn determination is also guilty. In short, not all sin is personal. There must be a sin of nature ? a race-sin ? or the beginnings of actual sin cannot be accounted for or regarded as objects of God?s condemnation. Julius Muller, Doctrine of Sin, 2:320- 328, 341 ? ?If the deep rooted depravity which we bring with us into the world be not our sin, it at once becomes an excuse for our actual sins.? Princeton Essays, 1:138, 139 ? Alternative:

1. May a man, by his own power, prevent the development of this hereditary depravity? Then we do not know that all men are sinners, or that Christ?s salvation is needed by all.

2. Is actual sin a necessary consequence of hereditary depravity? Then it is, on this theory, a free act no longer, and is not guilty, since guilt is predicable only of voluntary transgression of known law. See Baird, Elohim Revealed, 256 sq.; Hodge, Essays, 571-633; Philippi, Glaubenslehre, 2:61-73; Edwards on the Will, part iii, sec. 4; Bibliotheca Sacra, 20:317-320.

4. The Federal Theory, or Theory of Condemnation by Covenant.

The Federal theory, or theory of the Covenants, had its origin with Cocceius (1603-1669), professor at Leyden, but was more fully elaborated by Turretin (1623-1687). It has become a tenet of the Reformed as distinguished from the Lutheran church, and in this country it has its main advocates in the Princeton school of theologians, of whom Dr. Charles Hodge was the representative.

According to this view, Adam was constituted by God?s sovereign appointment the representative of the whole human race. With Adam as their representative, God entered into covenant, agreeing to bestow upon them eternal life on condition of his obedience, but making the penalty of his disobedience to be the corruption and death of all his posterity. In accordance with the terms of this covenant, since Adam sinned, God accounts all his descendants as sinners and condemns them because of Adam?s transgression.

In execution of this sentence of condemnation, God immediately creates each soul of Adam?s posterity with a corrupt and depraved nature, which infallibly leads to sin and which is itself sin. The theory is therefore a theory of the immediate imputation of Adam?s sin to his posterity, their corruption of nature not being the cause of that imputation but the effect of it. In

<450512> Romans 5:12 ? ?death passed unto all men, for that all sinned,?

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