place of ours so that we are saved thereby. Wilson holds that the incarnation constituted the Atonement, and that all thought of expiation may be eliminated. Henry B. Smith far better summed up the gospel in the words: ?Incarnation in order to Atonement.? We regard as still better the words: ?Incarnation in order to reveal the Atonement.?

A propitiation: <450325>Romans 3:25, 26 ? ?whom God set forth to be a his blood...that he might himself be just, and the justifier of him that hath faith in Jesus.? A full and critical exposition of this passage will be found under the Ethical Theory of the Atonement, pages 750-760. Here it is sufficient to say that it shows:

(1) that Christ?s death is a propitiatory sacrifice,

(2) that its first and main effect is upon God,

(3) that the particular attributes in God which demands the atonement is his justice, or holiness and

(4) that the satisfaction of this holiness is the necessary condition of God?s justifying the believer.

Compare <421813>Luke 18:13, margin ? ?God, be thou merciful unto me the sinner?; lit.: ?God be propitiated toward me the sinner? ? by the sacrifice, whose smoke was ascending before the publican, even while he prayed. <580217>Hebrews 2:17 ? ?a merciful and faithful high priest in things pertaining to God, to make propitiation for the sins of the people?; <620202>1 John 2:2 ? ?and he is the propitiation for our sins; and not for ours only, but also for the whole world?; 4:10 ? ?Herein is love, not that we loved God, but that he loved us, and sent his Son to be the propitiation for our sins?; cf. Gen. 32:20, LXX. ? ?I will appease [ ejxila>somai , ?propitiate?] him with the present that goeth before me?; <201614>Proverbs 16:14, LXX. ? ?The wrath of a king is as messengers of death; but a wise man will pacify it?[ ejxila>setai , ?propitiate it?].

On propitiation, see Foster, Christian Life and Theology, 216 ? ?Something was thereby done which rendered God inclined to pardon the sinner. God is made inclined to forgive sinners by the sacrifice, because his righteousness was exhibited by the infliction of the penalty of sin but not because he needed to be inclined in heart to love the sinner or to exercise his mercy. In fact., it was he himself who ?set forth? Jesus as ?a propitiation? ( <450325>Romans 3:25, 26). ?Paul never merges the objective atonement in its subjective effects, although no writer of the New Testament has more fully recognized these subjective effects. With him

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