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irrational one. We must distinguish creation in eternity past ( = God and the world co-eternal, yet God the cause of the world, as he is the begetter of the Son) from continuous creation (which is an explanation of Preservation, but not of creation at all). It is this latter, not the former, to which Rothe holds (see under the doctrine of Preservation, pages 415,

416). Birks, Difficulties of Belief, 31, 82 ? ?Creation is not from eternity, since past eternity cannot be actually traversed any more than we can reach the bound of an eternity to come. There was no time before creation, because there was no succession.?

Birks. Scripture Doctrine of Creation, 78-105 ? ?The first verse of Genesis excludes five speculative falsehoods:

(1) There is nothing but uncreated matter,

(2) there is no God distinct from his creatures,

(3) creation is a series of acts without a beginning,

(4) there is no real universe and

(5) nothing can be known of God or the origin of things.?

Veitch, Knowing and Being, 22 ? ?The ideas of creation and creative energy are emptied of meaning, and for them is substituted the conception or fiction of an eternally related or double sided world, not of what has been, but of what always is. It is another form of the seesaw philosophy. The eternal Self only is, if the eternal manifold is; the eternal manifold is, if the eternal Self is. The one, in being the other, is or makes itself the one; the other, in being the one, is or makes itself the other. This may be called a unity; it is rather, if we might invent a term suited to the new and marvelous conception, an unparalleled and unbegotten twinity.?

(b) Creation from eternity is not necessitated by God?s timelessness. Because God is free from the law of time it does not follow that creation is free from that law. Rather is it true that no eternal creation is conceivable, since this involves an infinite number. Time must have had a beginning and since the universe and time are coexistent, creation could not have been from eternity.

<650125> Jude 25 ? ?Before all time? ? implies that time had a beginning, and

<490104> Ephesians 1:4 ? ?before the foundation of the world? ? implies that creation itself had a beginning. Is creation infinite? No, says Dorner, Glaubenslehre, 1:459, because to a perfect creation unity is as necessary as multiplicity. The universe is an organism, and there can be no organism without a definite number of parts. For a similar reason Dorner, System Doctrine, 2:28, denies that the universe can be eternal. Granting, on the

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