should seek to detect in all things. All reality is ultimately explicable as Spirit, or Intelligence, ? hence our ontology must be a Logic, and the laws of things must be laws of thinking.? Sterrett, in like manner, in his Studies in Hegel?s Philosophy of Religion, 17, quotes Hegel?s Logic, Wallace?s translation, 89, 91, 236: Spinoza?s Substance is, as it were, a dark, shapeless abyss, which devours all definite content as utterly null, and produces from itself nothing that has positive subsistence in itself...God is Substance, ? he is, however, no less the Absolute Person.? This is essential to religion, but this, says Hegel, Spinoza never perceived: ?Everything depends upon the Absolute Truth being perceived, not merely as Substance but as Subject.? God is self ? conscious and self- determining Spirit. Necessity is excluded. Man is free and immortal. Men are not mechanical parts of God, nor do they lose their identity, although they find themselves truly only in him. With this estimate of Hegel?s system Caird, Erdmann and Mulford substantially agree. This is Tennyson?s ?Higher Pantheism.?

Seth, Ethical Principles, 446 ? ?Hegel conceived the superiority of his system to Spinozism to he in the substitution of Subject for Substance. The true Absolute must contain, instead of abolishing, relations; the true Monism must include, instead of excluding, Pluralism. A One, which, like Spinoza?s Substance, or the Hegelian Absolute, does not enable us to think the Many, cannot be the true One ? the unity of the Manifold.

...Since evil exists, Schopenhauer substituted for Hegel?s Panlogism, which asserted the identity of the rational and the real, a blind impulse of life, ? for absolute Reason he substituted a reasonless Will? ? a system of practical pessimism. Alexander, Theories of Will, 5 ? ?Spinoza recognized no distinction between will and intellectual affirmation or denial.?? John Caird, Fund. Ideas of Christianity, 1: 107 ? ?As there is no reason in the conception of pure Space why any figures or forms, lines, surfaces, solids, should arise in it, so there is no reason in the pure colorless abstraction of Infinite Substance why any world of finite things and beings should ever come into existence. It is the grave of all things, the productive source of nothing.?? Hegel called Schelling?s Identity or Absolute ?the infinite night in which all cows are black? ? an allusion to Goethe?s Faust, part 2, act 1, where the words are added: ?and cats are gray.?? Although Hegel?s preference of the term Subject, instead of the term Substance, has led many to maintain that he believed in a personality of God distinct from that of man, his overemphasis of the Idea, and his comparative ignoring of the elements of Love and Will, leave it still doubtful whether his Idea was anything more than unconscious and

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