origin of the idea are insufficient, and require as their presupposition the very intuition which they would supplant or reduce to a secondary place. We claim that it cannot be derived from any other source than an original cognitive power of the mind.

1. Not from external revelation, ? whether communicated

(a) through the Scriptures, or

(b) through tradition; for, unless man had from another source a previous knowledge of the existence of a God from whom such a revelation might come, the revelation itself could have no authority for him.

(a) See Gillespie, Necessary Existence of God, 10; Ebrard, Dogmatik 1:117; H.B. Smith, Faith and Philosophy, 18 ? ?A revelation takes for granted that he to whom it is made has some knowledge of God, though it may enlarge and purify that knowledge.? We cannot prove god from the authority of the Scriptures, and then also prove the Scriptures from the authority of God. The very idea of Scripture as a revelation presupposes belief in a God who can make it. Newman myth, in New Englander, 1878:355 ? We cannot derive from a sundial our knowledge of the existence of a sun. The sundial presupposes the sun, and cannot be understood without previous knowledge of the sun. Wuttke, Christian Ethics, 2:103 ? ?The voice of the divine ego does not first come to the consciousness of the individual ego from without; rather does every external revelation presuppose already this inner one; there must echo out from within man something kindred to the outer revelation, in order to it being recognized and accepted as divine.?

Fairbairn, Studies in Philos. Of Relig. and Hist., 21,22 ? ?If man is dependent on an outer revelation for his idea of God, then he must have what Schelling happily termed ?an original atheism of consciousness.? Religion cannot, in that case, be rooted in the nature of man, ? it must be implanted from without.? Schurman, Belief in God, 78 ? ?A primitive revelation of God could only mean that God had endowed man with the capacity of apprehending his divine original. This capacity, like every other, is innate and like every other, it realizes itself only in the presence of appropriate conditions.? Clarke, Christian Theology, 112 ? ?Revelation cannot demonstrate God?s existence, for it must assume it; but it will manifest his existence and character to men, and will service them as the chief source of certainty concerning him, for it will teach them what they could not know by other means.?

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