Curtis on Inspiration, 288. For denial of the all comprehensive character of Christian Morality, see John Stuart Mill, on Liberty; per contra, see Review of Mill, in Theol. Eclectic, 6:508-512: Row, in Strivings for the Faith, pub. by Christian Evidence Society 181-220; also, Bampton Lectures. 1877:130-176; Fisher, Beginnings of Christianity, 28-38, 174
In contrast with the Christian system of morality the defects of heathen systems are so marked and fundamental, that they constitute a strong corroborative evidence of the divine origin of the Scripture revelation. We therefore append certain facts and references with regard to particular heathen systems.
1. C ONFUCIANISM . Confucius ( Kung-fu-tse), BC 551-478, contemporary with Pythagoras and Buddha. Socrates was born ten years after Confucius died. Mencius (371-278) was a disciple of Confucius. Matheson, in Faiths of the World (St. Giles Lectures), 73-108, claims that Confucianism was ?an attempt to substitute a morality for theology.? Legge, however, in Present Day Tracts, 3: no. 18, shows that this is a mistake. Confucius simply left religion where he found it. God, or Heaven, is worshiped in China, but only by the Emperor. Chinese religion is apparently a survival of the worship of the patriarchal family. The father of the family was its only head and priest. In China, though the family widened into the tribe, and the tribe into the nation, the father still retained his sole authority, and, as the father of his people, the Emperor alone officially offered sacrifice to God. Between God and the people the gulf has so widened that the people may be said to have no practical knowledge of God or communication with him. Dr. W.A.P. Martin: ?Confucianism has degenerated into a pantheistic medley, and renders worship to an impersonal ?anima mundi,? under the leading forms of visible nature.?
Dr. William Ashmore, private letter: ?The common people of China have:
(1) Ancestor worship, and the worship of deified heroes:
(2) Geomancy, or belief in the controlling power of the elements of nature; but back of these, and antedating them, is
(3) the worship of Heaven and Earth, or Father and Mother, a very ancient dualism; this belongs to the common people also, though once a year the Emperor, as a sort of high priest of his people, offers sacrifice on the altar of Heaven; in this he acts alone. ?Joss? is not a Chinese word at all. It is the corrupted form of the Portuguese word ?Deos.? The word ?pidgin? is similarly an attempt to say ?business? (big-i-ness or bidgin). ?Joss-pidgin? therefore
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