to be determined in accordance with an inborn ideal of human worth and dignity? Not all good, but the true good, not the things which please, but the things which should please, are to be the aim of action.?
Bixby, Crisis of Morals, 223 ? ?The Utilitarian is really asking about the wisest method of embodying the ideal. He belongs to that second stage in which the moral artist considers through what material and in what form and color he may best realize his thought. What the ideal is, and why it is the highest, he does not tell us. Morality begins, not in feeling, but in reason. And reason is impersonal. It discerns the moral equality of personalities.? Genung, Epic of the Inner Life, 20 ? Job speaks out his character like one of Robert Browning?s heroes. He teaches that ?there is a service of God which is not work for reward: it is a heart-loyalty, a hunger after God?s presence, which survives loss and chastisement which, in spite of contradictory seeming cleaves to what is godlike as the needle seeks the pole and which reaches up out of the darkness and hardness of this life into the light and love beyond.?
Greatest good of being: Not only Edwards, but also Priestley, Bentham, Dwight, Finney, Hopkins, Fairchild, hold this view. See Edwards, Works, 2:261-304 ? ?Virtue is benevolence toward being in general?; Dwight, Theology, 3:150-162 ? ?Utility the foundation of Virtue?; Hopkins, Law of Love, 7-28; Fairchild, Moral Philosophy; Finney, Systematic Theology 42-135. This theory regards good as a mere state of the sensibility, instead of consisting in purity of being. It forgets that in eternity past ?love for being in general? = simply God?s self-love, or God?s regard for his own happiness. This implies that God is holy only for a purpose; he is bound to be unholy, if greater good would result; that is, holiness has no independent existence in his nature. We grant that a thing is often known to be right by the fact that it is useful; but this is very different from saying that its usefulness makes it right. ?Utility is only the setting of the diamond, which marks, but does not make, its value.? ?If utility be a criterion of rectitude, it is only because it is a revelation of the divine nature.? See British Quarterly, July 1877, on Matthew Arnold and Bishop Butler. Bp. Butler, Nature of Virtue, in Works, Bohn?s ed., 334 ? ?Benevolence is the true self-love.? Love and holiness are obligatory in themselves, and not because they promote the general good. Cicero well said that they who confounded the honestum with the utile deserved to be banished from society. See criticism on Porter?s Moral Science, in Lutheran Quarterly, Apr. 1885:325-331; also F. L. Patton, on Metaphysics of Oughtness, in Presb. Rev., 1886:127-150.
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