III. ESSENTIAL ELEMENTS OF HUMAN NATURE. 1. The Dichotomous Theory.
Man has a two-fold nature ? on the one hand material, on the other hand immaterial. He consists of body and of spirit or soul. That there are two, and only two, elements in man?s being, is a fact to which consciousness testifies. This testimony is confirmed by Scripture, in which the prevailing representation of man?s constitution is that of dichotomy.
Dichotomous, from diJca , ?in two,? and te>mnw , ?to cut,? = composed of two parts. Man is as conscious that his immaterial part is a unity, as that his body is a unity. He knows two, and only two, parts of his being ? body and soul. So man is the true Janus (Martensen), Mr. Facing-both- ways (Bunyan). That the Scriptures favor dichotomy will appear by considering:
(a) The record of man?s creation ( <010207>Genesis 2:7), in which, as a result of the in-breathing of the divine Spirit, the body becomes possessed and vitalized by a single principle ? the living soul.
<010207> Genesis 2:7 ? ?And Jehovah God formed man of the dust of the ground, and breathed into his nostrils the breath of life; and man became a living soul. Here it is not said that man was first a living soul, and that then God breathed into him a spirit; but that God in-breathed spirit, and man became a living soul = God?s life took possession of clay and as a result, man had a soul. Cf. <182703>Job 27:3 ? ?For my life is yet whole i) n me. And the spirit of God is in my nostrils?; 32:8 ? ?there is a spirit in man, And the breath of the Almighty giveth them understanding?; 33:4 ? ?The Spirit of God bath made me, And the breath of the Almighty giveth me life.?
(b) Passages in which the human soul, or spirit, is distinguished, both from the divine Spirit from whom it proceeded, and from the body which it inhabits:
<041622> Numbers 16:22 ? ?O God, the God of the spirits of all flesh?;
<381201> Zechariah 12:1 ? ?Jehovah, who? formeth the spirit of man within him?; <460211>1 Corinthians 2:11 ? ?the spirit of the man which is in him? the Spirit of God?; <581209>Hebrews 12:9 ? ?the Father of spirits.? The passages just mentioned distinguish the spirit of man from the Spirit of God. The following distinguish the soul, or spirit, of man from the body which it inhabits: <012518>Genesis 25:18 ? ?it came to pass, as her soul was departing (for she died)?; <111721>1 Kings 17:21 ? ?Jehovah my God, I pray
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