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but in permanent evil states of the affections and will. It makes the object of penalty to be not the reformation of the offender or the prevention of evil doing, but the vindication of justice, outraged by violation of law. It teaches than righteousness is not benevolence or a form of benevolence, but a distinct and separate attribute of the divine nature which demands that sin should be visited with punishment, apart from any consideration of the useful results that will flow therefrom.

(b) It combines in itself all the valuable elements in the theories before mentioned, while it avoids their inconsistencies, by showing the deeper principle upon which each of these elements is based.

The Ethical theory admits the indispensableness of Christ?s example, advocated by the Socinian theory, the moral influence of his suffering. The Bushnellian theory urged the securing of the safety of government. The Grotian theory insisted on by the participation of the believer in Christ?s new humanity, taught by the Irvingian theory and the satisfaction to God?s majesty for the elect, made so much of by the Anselmic theory. But the Ethical theory claims that all these other theories require, as a presupposition for their effective working, that ethical satisfaction to the holiness of God, which is rendered in guilty human nature by the Son of God who took that nature to redeem at.

(c) It most fully meets the requirements of Scripture by holding that the necessity of the atonement is absolute, since it rests upon the demands of immanent holiness, the fundamental attribute of God.

<441703> Acts 17:3 ? ?it behooved the Christ to suffer, and to rise again from the dead? ? lit.: ?It was necessary for the Christ to suffer?; <422426>Luke 24:26 ? ?Behooved it not the Christ to suffer these things, and to enter into his glory?? ? lit.: ?Was it not necessary that the Christ should suffer these things?? It is not enough to say that Christ must suffer in order that the prophecies might be fulfilled. Why was it prophesied that he should suffer? Why did God purpose that he should suffer? The ultimate necessity is a necessity in the nature of God.

Plato, Republic, 2:361 ? ?The righteous man who is thought to be unrighteous will be scourged, racked, bound, will have his eyes put out and finally, having endured all sorts of evil, will be impaled.? This means that, as human society is at present constituted, even a righteous person must suffer for the sins of the world. ?Mors mortis Morti mortem ms morte dedisset, Sterne vite janua clausa foret? ? ?Had not the Death-

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