A. It puts the most natural interpretation upon <450512>Romans 5:12-21. In verse 12 of this passage ? ?death passed unto all men, for that all sinned? ? the great majority of commentators regard the word ?sinned? as describing a common transgression of the race in Adam. The death spoken of is, as the whole context shows, mainly though not exclusively physical. It has passed upon all ? even upon those who have committed no conscious and personal transgression whereby to explain its infliction (verse 14). The legal phraseology of the passage shows that this infliction is not a matter of sovereign decree but ofjudicial penalty (verses 13, 14, 15, 16, 18 ? ?law,? ?transgression,? ?trespass,? ?judgment...of one unto condemnation,? ?act of righteousness,? ?justification?). As the explanation of this universal subjection to penalty, we are referred to Adam?s sin. By that one act (?so,? verse 12) ? the ?trespass of the one? man (v. 15, 17), the ?one trespass? (v. 18 ) ? death came to all men, because all [not ?have sinned?, but] sinned ( pa~ntev h[marton aorist of instantaneous past action) ? that is, all sinned in ?the one trespass? of ?the one man. Compare <461522>1 Corinthians 15:22 ? ?As in Adam all die? ? where the contrast with physical resurrection shows that physical death is meant; <470511>2 Corinthians 5:11 ? ?one died for all, therefore all died.? See Commentaries of Meyer, Bengel, Olshausen, Philippi, Wordsworth, Lange, Godet, and Shedd. Beyschlag, Ritschl, and Pfleiderer recognized that as the correct interpretation of Paul?s words although no one of these three accepts Paul?s doctrine as authoritative.

Beyschlag, N. T. Theology, 2:58-60 ? ?To understand the apostle?s view, we must follow the exposition of Bengel (which is favored also by Meyer and Pfleiderer). ?Because they ? viz., in Adam ? all have sinned?. They all, namely, who were included in Adam according to the O. T. view, which sees the whole race in its founder, acted in his action.? Ritschl: ?Certainly Paul treated the universal destiny of death as due to the sin of Adam. Nevertheless it is not yet suited for a theological rule just for the reason that the apostle has formed this idea.? In other words, Paul?s teaching it does not make it binding upon our faith. Philippi, Com. on Romans, 168 ? Interpret <450512>Romans 5:12 ? ?one sinned for all, therefore all sinned,? by <470515>2 Corinthians 5:15 ? ?one died for all, therefore all died? Evans. In Presb. Rev., 1883:294 ? ?by the trespass of the one the many died,? ?by the trespass of the one, death reigned through the one,? ?through the one man?s disobedience? ? all these phrases and the phrases with respect to salvation which correspond to them indicate that the fallen race and the redeemed race are each regarded as a

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