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belief in God?s existence. In assuming that there is a universe, that the universe is a rational whole, a system of thought-relations, we assume the existence of an absolute thinker, of whose thought the universe is an expression.

Pfleiderer, Philos of Religion, 1:81 ? ?The real can only be thinkable of it is realizes thought, a thought previously thought, which our thinking has only to think again. Therefore the real, in order to be thinkable for us, must be the realized thought of the creative thinking of an eternal divine reason which is presented to our cognitive thinking.? Royce, World and Individual, 2:41 ? ?Universal teleology constitutes the essence of all facts.? A.H. Bradford, The age of Faith, 142 ? ?Suffering and sorrow are universal. Either God could prevent them and would not, and therefore he is neither beneficent nor loving; or else he cannot prevent them and therefore something is greater than God is, and therefore there is no God? But here is the use of reason in the individual reasoning. Reasoning in the individual necessitates the absolute or universal reason. If there is the absolute reason, the universe and history are ordered and administered in harmony with reason; then suffering and sorrow can be neither meaningless or final, since that would be the contradiction of reason, That cannot be possible in the universal and absolute which contradicts reason in man.?

D. Our primitive belief in moral obligation, or, in other words, our conviction that right has universal authority, involves the belief in God?s existence. In assuming that the universe is a moral whole, we assume the existence of an absolute Will, of whose righteousness the universe is an expression.

Pfleiderer, Philos of Religion, 1?88 ? ?The ground of moral obligation is found neither in the subject nor in society, but only in the universal or divine Will that combines both...103 ? The idea of God is the unity of the true and the good, or of the two highest ideas which our reason thinks as theoretical reason, but demands as practical reason...In the idea of God we find the only synthesis of the world that is ? the world of science, and of the world that ought to be ? the world of religion.? Seth, Ethical Principles, 425 ? ?This is not a mathematical demonstration. Philosophy never is an exact science. Rather is it offered as the only sufficient foundation of the moral life...The life of goodness...is a life based on the conviction that its source and its issues are in the Eternal and the Infinite.? As finite truth and goodness are comprehensible only in the light of some absolute principle, which furnishes for them an ideal standard, so finite

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