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impressions in finite minds, so that the world apart from these is nothing? This view cannot be disproved but it accords so ill with the impression of our total experience that It is practically impossible. Is then the world of things a continuous existence of some kind independent of finite thought and consciousness This claim cannot be demonstrated, but it is the only view that does not involve insuperable difficulties. What is the nature and where is the place of this cosmic existence? That is the question between Realism and Idealism. Realism views things as existing in a real space, and as true ontological realities. Idealism views both them and the space in which they are supposed to be existing as existing only in and for a cosmic Intelligence, and apart from which they are absurd and contradictory. Things are independent of our thought, but not independent of all thought, in a lumpish materiality which is the antithesis and negation of consciousness. See also Martineau, Study, 1:214-230, 341. For advocacy of the substantive existence of second causes, see Porter, Hum. Intellect, 582-588; Hodge, Systematic Theology, 1:596; Alden, Philosophy, 48-80 : Hodgson, Time and Space, 149-218; A.J. Balfour, in Mind, Oct. 1893:430.

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