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up. It does nor put a stop to life. It became an advantage to life as a whole that certain primitive forms should be left by the way to perish. We owe our human birth to death in nature. The earth before us has died that we might live. We are the living children of a world that has died for us. Death is a means of life, of increasing specialization of function. Some cells are born to give up their life sacrificially for the organism to which they belong.

While we regard Newman Smyth?s view as an ingenious and valuable explanation of the incidental results of death, we do not regard it as an explanation of death?s origin. God has overruled death for good and we can assent to much of Dr. Smyth?s exposition. But that this good could be gained only by death seems to us wholly unproved and unprovable. Biology shows us that other methods of reproduction are possible, and that death is an incident and not a primary requisite to development. We regard Dr Smyth?s theory as incompatible with the Scripture representations of death as the consequence of sin, as the sign of God?s displeasure, as a means of discipline for the fallen, as destined to complete abolition when sin itself has been done away. We reserve, however, the full proof that physical death is part of the penalty of sin until we discuss the Consequences of Sin to Adam?s Posterity.

But this death was also, and chiefly,

B. Spiritual death, or the separation of the soul from God. In this are included:

(a) Negatively, the loss of man?s moral likeness to God, or that underlying tendency of his whole nature toward God, which constituted his original righteousness.

(b) Positively, the depraving of all those powers which, in their united action with reference to moral and religious truth, we call man?s moral and religious nature or, in other words, the blinding of his intellect, the corruption of his affections, and the enslavement of his will.

Seeking to be a god, man became a slave and seeking independence, he ceased to be master of himself. Once his intellect was pure, he was supremely conscious of God, and saw all things else in God?s light. Now he was supremely conscious of self and saw all things as they affected self. This self-consciousness ? how unlike the objective life of the first apostles, of Christ, and of every loving soul! Once man?s affections were pure, he loved God supremely and other things in subordination to God?s

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