(a) A probation of our common nature in Adam, sinless as he was and with full knowledge of God?s law is more consistent with divine justice. A separate probation of each individual with inexperience, inborn depravity, and evil example, all favor a decision against God.

(b) A constitution, which made a common fall possible, may have been indispensable to any provision of a common salvation.

(c) Our chance for salvation as sinners under grace may be better than it would have been as sinless as Adam under law.

(d) A constitution, which permitted oneness with the first Adam in the transgression, cannot be unjust since a like principle of oneness with Christ, the second Adam, secures our salvation.

(e) There is also a physical and natural immanence of Christ in humanity guarantees a continuous divine effort to remedy union with Christ which antedates the fall and which is incident to man?s creation. The disaster caused by man?s free will and to restore the moral union with God, which the race has lost by the fall.

Thus our ruin and our redemption were alike wrought out without personal act of ours. As all the natural life of humanity was in Adam, so all the spiritual life of humanity was in Christ. As our old nature was corrupted in Adam and propagated to us by physical generation, so our new nature was restored in Christ and communicated to us by the regenerating work of the Holy Spirit. If then we are justified upon the ground of our being in Christ, we may in like manner be condemned on the ground of our being in Adam.

Stearns, in N. Eng., Jan. 1882:95 ? ?The silence of Scripture respecting the precise connection between the first great sin and the sins of the millions of individuals who have lived since then is a silence that neither science nor philosophy has been, or is, able to break with a satisfactory explanation. Separate the twofold nature of man, corporate and individual. Recognize in the one the region of necessity, in the other the region of freedom. The scientific law of heredity has brought into new currency the doctrine, which the old theologians sought to express under the name of original sin. This is a term which had a meaning as it was at first used by Augustine, but which is an awkward misnomer if we accept any other theory but his.?

Dr. Hovey claims that the Augustinian view breaks down when applied to the connection between the justification of believers and the righteousness

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