and probation of sinners which God foresaw and provided for at the creation. Evil things in the universe are symbols of sin, and helps to its overthrow. See Bowne, Review of H. Spencer, 264, 205; McCosh, Christ. and Positivism, 82 sq .; Martineau, Essays, 1:50, and Study, 1:851-398; Porter, Hum. Intellect, 599; Mivart, Lessons from Nature, 366-371; Princeton Rev., 1878:272-303; Shaw, on Positivism.

2. Defects of the Teleological Argument. These attach not to the premises but to the conclusion sought to be drawn therefrom.

A. The argument cannot prove a personal God. The order and useful collocations of the universe may be only the changing phenomena of an impersonal intelligence and will, such as pantheism supposes. The finality may be only immanent finality.

There is such a thing as immanent and unconscious finality. National spirit, without set purpose, constructs language. The bee works unconsciously to ends. Strato of Lampsacus regarded the world as a vast animal. Aristotle, Phys., 2:8 ? ?Plant the shin-builder?s skill within the timber itself, and you have the mode in which nature produces.?

Here we see a dim anticipation of the modern doctrine of development from within instead of creation from without. Neander: ?The divine work goes on from within outward.? John Fiske: ?The argument from the watch has been superseded by the argument from the flower.? Iverach, Theism, 91 ? ?The effect of evolution has been simply to transfer the cause from a mere external influence working from without to an immanent rational principle.? Martineau, Study, 1:349, 350 ? ?Theism is in no way committed to the doctrine of a God external to the world...nor does intelligence require, in order to gain an object, to give it externality.?

Newman Smyth, Place of Death, 62-80 ? ?The universe exists in some all pervasive Intelligence. Suppose we could see a small heap of brick, scraps of metal, and pieces of mortar, gradually shaping themselves into the walls and interior structure of a building, adding needed material as the work advanced, and at last presenting in its completion a factory furnished with varied and finely wrought machinery. Or, a locomotive carrying a process of self-repair to compensate for wear, growing and increasing in size, detaching from itself at intervals pieces of brass or iron endowed with the power of growing up step by step into other locomotives capable of running themselves and of reproducing new locomotives in their turn.? So nature in its separate parts may seem mechanical, but as a whole it is rational. Weismann does not ?disown a directive power,? ?

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