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connection of mind and matter in Leibnitz?s pre-established harmony, Spinoza rejected the Cartesian doctrine of two God created substances, and maintained that there is but one fundamental substance, namely, God himself (see Upton, Hibbert Lectures, 172).

There is an increased flow of blood to the head in times of mental activity. Sometimes, in intense heat of literary composition, the blood fairly surges through the brain. No diminution, but further increase, of physical activity accompanies the greatest efforts of mind. Lay a man upon a balance; fire a pistol shot or inject suddenly a great thought into his mind; at once he will tip the balance, and tumble upon his head. Romanes, Mind and Motion, 21 ? ?Consciousness causes physical changes, but not vice versa. To say that mind is a function of motion is to say that mind is a function of itself, since motion exists only for mind. Better suppose the physical and the psychical to be only one; as in the violin sound and vibration are one. Volition is a cause in nature because it has cerebration for its obverse and inseparable side. But if there is no motion without mind, then there can be no universe without God.?...34 ? ?Because within the limits of human experience mind is only known as associated with brain, it does not follow that mind cannot exist without brain. Helmholtz?s explanation of the effect of one of Beethoven?s sonatas on the brain may be perfectly correct, but the explanation of the effect given by a musician may be equally correct within its category.?

Herbert Spencer, Principles of Psychology, 1:656 ? ?Two things, mind and nervous action, exist together, but we cannot imagine how they are related? (see review of Spencer?s Psychology, in N. Englander, July,

1873). Tyndall, Fragments of Science, 120 ? ?The passage from the physics of the brain to the facts of consciousness is unthinkable.? Schurman, Agnosticism and Religion, 95 ? ?The metamorphosis of vibrations into conscious ideas is a miracle, in comparison with which the floating of iron or the turning of water into wine is easily credible.? Bain, Mind and Body, 131 ? There is no break in the physical continuity. See Brit. Quar., Jan. 1874; art, by Herbert, on Mind and the Science of Energy; McCosh, Intuitions, 145; Talbot, in flap. Quar., Jan. 1871. On Geulinex?s ?occasional causes? and Descartes?s dualism, see Martineau, Types, 144, 145, 156-158, and Study, 2:77.

4. The materialistic theory, denying as it does the priority of spirit, can furnish no sufficient cause for the highest features of the existing universe, namely, its personal intelligence, its intuitive ideas, its free will, its moral progress, its beliefs in God and immortality.

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