Fichte: ?If any one adopting the dogma of necessity should remain virtuous, we must seek the cause of his goodness elsewhere than in the innocuousness of his doctrine. Upon the supposition of free will alone can duty, virtue, and morality have any existence.? Lessing: ?Kein Mensch muss mussen.? Delitzsch: ?Der Mensch, wie er jetzt ist, ist wahlfrei, aber niehet machtfrei.?

Kant regarded freedom as an exception to the law of natural causality. But this freedom is not phenomenal but noumenal, for causality is not a category or noumen. From this freedom we get our whole idea of personality, for personality is freedom of the whole soul from the mechanism of nature. Kant treated scornfully the determinism of Leibnitz.

He said it was the freedom of a turnspit, which when once wound up directed its own movements, i.e. , was merely automatic. Compare with this the view of Baldwin, Psychology, Feeling and Will, 373 ? ?Free choice is a synthesis, the outcome of which is in every case conditioned upon its elements, but in no case caused by them. A logical inference is conditioned upon its premises, but is not caused by them. Both inference and choice express the nature of the conscious principle and the unique method of its life. The motives do not grow into volition nor does the volition stand apart from the motives. The motives are partial expressions, the volition is a total expression of the same existence. Freedom is the expression of one?s self conditioned by past choices and present environment.? Shakespeare, Hamlet, 3:4 ? ?Refrain tonight, And that shall lend a kind of easiness To the next abstinence: the next more easy: For use can almost change the stamp of nature, And either curb the devil or throw him out With wondrous potency.? 3:2 ? ?Purpose is but the slave to memory; Of violent birth but poor validity.? 4:7 ? ?That we would do, We should do when we would; for this would changes And hath abatements and delays as many As there are tongues, are hands, are accidents.? Goethe: ?Von der Gewalt die alle Wesen bindet, Befreit der Mensch sich der sich uberwindet.?

Scotus Novanticus (Prof. Laurie of Edinburgh), Ethica, 287 ? ?The chief good is fullness of life achieved through law by the action of will as reasons on sensibility. Immorality is the letting loose of feeling, in opposition to the idea and the law in it; it is individuality in opposition to personality. In immorality, will is defeated, the personality overcome and the subject will be as volitional as a dog is volitionally. The subject takes possession of the personality and uses it for its natural desires.? Maudsley, Physiology of Mind, 456, quotes Ribot, Diseases of the Will, 133 ? ?Will is not the cause of anything. It is like the verdict of a jury,

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