Quantitative-qualitative Evaluation

Systematic Theology, 91 ? ?Moral law, unlike natural law, is a standard of action to be adopted or rejected in the exercise of rational freedom, i.e. , of moral agency.? See also Shedd, Dogmatic Theology, 1:531.

Mark Hopkins, In Princeton Rev., Sept 1882:190 ? ?In moral law there is enforcement by punishment only ? never by power, for this would confound moral law with physical and obedience can never be produced or secured by power. In physical law, on the contrary, enforcement is wholly by power and punishment is impossible. So far as man is free, he is not subject to law at all, in its physical sense. Our wills are free from law as enforced by power ; but are free under law, as enforced by punishment . Where law prevails in the same sense as in the Material world, there can be no freedom. Law does not prevail when we reach the region of choice. We hold to a power in the mind of man originating a free choice. Two objects or courses of action, between which choice is to be made, are presupposed: (1) A uniformity or set of uniforms implying a force by which the uniformity is produced [physical or natural law]. (2) A command, addressed to free and intelligent beings, that can be obeyed or disobeyed, and that has connected with it rewards or punishments? [moral law]. See also Wm. Arthur Difference between Physical and Moral Law.

B. The expression of the divine will in the constitution of rational and free agents ? this we call moral law. This elemental law of our moral nature with which only we are now concerned, has all the characteristics mentioned as belonging to law in general. It implies:

(a) A divine Lawgiver, or ordaining Will.

(b) Subjects, or moral beings upon whom the law terminates.

(c) General command or expression of this will in the moral constitution of the subjects.

(d) Power, enforcing the command.

(e) Duty, or obligation to obey.

(f) Sanctions, or pains and penalties for disobedience.

All these are of a loftier sort than are found in human law. But we need especially to emphasize the fact that this law

(g) is an expression of the moral nature of God, and therefore of God?s holiness, the fundamental attribute of that nature; and that it

(h) sets forth absolute conformity to that holiness, as the normal condition of man. This law is inwrought into man?s rational and moral

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