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change a similar creature would be evolved, however long the animal kingdom continued to exist. The use of these successive chances to produce man is inexplicable except upon the hypothesis of an infinite designing Wisdom.

(c) The barbarous customs to which this view looks for support may better be explained as marks of broken down civilization than as relics of a primitive and universal savagery. Even if they indicated a former state of barbarism, that state might have been itself preceded by a condition of comparative culture.

Mark Hopkins, in Princeton Revelations Sept, 1882:194 ? ?There is no cruel treatment of females among animals. If man came from the lower animals, then he cannot have been originally savage; for you find the most of this cruel treatment among savages.? Tyler instances ?street Arabs.? He compares street Arabs to a ruined house, but savage tribes to a builder?s yard. See Duke of Argyll, Primeval Man, 129, 133; Bushnell, Nature and the Supernatural, 223; McLennan, Studies in Ancient History. Gulick, a Bibliotheca Sacra, July, 1892:517 ? ?Cannibalism and infanticide are unknown among the anthropoid apes. These must be the results of degradation. Pirates and slave traders are not men of low and abortive intelligence, but men of education who deliberately throw off all restraint and who use their powers for the destruction of society.?

Keane, Man, Past and Present, 40, quotes Sir H. H. Johnston, an administrator who has had a wider experience of the natives of Africa than any man living says that ?the tendency of the Negro, for several centuries past, has been an actual retrograde one ? a return toward the savage and even the brute. If he had been cut off from the immigration of the Arab and the European, the purely Negroid races, left to themselves, so far from advancing towards a higher type of humanity, might have actually reverted by degrees to a type no longer human.? Ratzel?s History of Mankind: ?We assign no great antiquity to Polynesian civilization. In New Zealand it is a matter of only some centuries back. In newly occupied territories, the development of the population began upon a higher level and then fell off. The Maoris? decadence resulted In the rapid impoverishment of culture, and the character of the people became more savage and cruel. Captain Cook found objects of art worshiped by the descendants of those who produced them.?

Recent researches have entirely discredited L. H. Morgan?s theory of an original brutal promiscuity of the human race. Ritchie, Darwin and Hegel, 6, note ? ?The theory of an original promiscuity is rendered extremely

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