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177 suggests that something more than atoms are needed to explain the universe. A correlating Intelligence and Will must be assumed. Atoms by themselves would be like a heap of loose nails, which need to be magnetized if they are to hold together. All structures would be resolved, and all forms of matter would disappear, if the Presence, which sustains them, were withdrawn. The atom, like the monad of Leibnitz. is ?parvus in suo genere deus? ? ?a little god in its nature? ? only because it is the expression of the mind and will of an immanent God.

Plato speaks of men who are ?dazzled by too near a look at material things.? They do not perceive that these very material things, since they can be interpreted only in terms of spirit, must themselves be essentially spiritual. Materialism is the explanation of a world of which ?ye know something ? the world of mind ? by a world of which we know next to nothing ? the world of matter. Upton, Hibbert Lectures, 297, 29 ? ?How about your material atoms and brain molecules? They have no real existence save as objects of thought, and therefore the very thought, which you say your atoms produce, turns out to be the essential precondition of their own existence.? With this agree the words of Dr. Ladd: ?Knowledge of matter involves repeated activities of sensation and reflection, of inductive and deductive inference, of intuitional belief in substance. These are all activities of mind. Only as the mind has a self-conscious life, is any knowledge of what matter is, or can do, to be gained...Everything is real which is the permanent subject of changing states. That which touches, feels, sees, is more real than that which is touched, felt, seen.?

H. N. Gardner, Presb. Rev., 1885:301, 865, 666 ? ?Mind gives to matter its chief meaning, ? hence matter alone can never explain the universe.? Gore, Incarnation, 31 ? ?Mind is not the product of nature, but the necessary constituent of nature, considered as an ordered knowable system.? Fraser, Philos. of Theism: ?An immoral act must originate in the immoral agent; a physical effect is not known to originate in its physical cause.? Matter, inorganic and organic, presupposes mind; but it is not true that mind presupposes matter. LeConte: ?If I could remove your brain cap, what would I see? Only physical changes. But you ? what do you perceive? Consciousness, thought, emotion, will. Now take external nature, the Cosmos. The observer from the outside sees only physical phenomena. But must there not be in this case also ? on the other side ? psychical phenomena, a Self, a Person, a Will??

The impossibility of finding in matter, regarded as mere atoms, any of the attributes of a cause, has led to a general abandonment of this old Materialism of Democritus, Epicurus, Lucretius, Condillac, Holbach,

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