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may be regarded as only secondary, regular, and automatic workings of the great first Cause.

For modern theories identifying force with divine will, see Herschel, Popular Lectures on Scientific Subjects, 460; Murphy, Scientific Bases, 13-15, 29-36, 42-52; Duke of Argyll, Reign of Law, 121-127; Wallace, Natural Selection, 363-371 Bowen, Metaphysics and Ethics, 146-162; Martineau, Essays, 1:63, 265, and Study, 1:244 ? ?Second causes in nature bear the same relation to the First Cause as the automatic movement of the muscles in walking bears to the first decision of the will that initiated the walk.? It is often objected that we cannot thus identify force with will, because in many cases the effort of our will is fruitless for the reason that nervous and muscular force is lacking. But this proves only that force cannot be identified with human will, not that it cannot be identified with the divine will. To the divine will no force is lacking; in God, will and force is one.

We therefore adopt the view of Maine de Biran, that causation pertains only to spirit. Porter, Human Intellect, 582-588, objects to this view as follows: ?This implies, first, that the conception of a material cause is self-contradictory. But the mind recognizes in itself spiritual energies that are not voluntary because we derive our notion of cause from will. It does not follow that the causal relation always involves will. It would follow that the universe, so far as it is not intelligent, is impossible. It implies, secondly, that there is but one agent in the universe, and that the phenomena of matter and mind are but manifestations of one single force ? the Creator?s.? We reply to this reasoning by asserting that no dead thing can act and that what we call involuntary spiritual energies are really unconscious or unremembered activities of the will.

From our present point of view we would also criticize Hodge, Systematic Theology, 1:596 ? ?Because we get our idea of force from mind, it does not follow that mind is the only force. That mind is a cause is no proof that electricity may not be a cause. If matter is force and nothing but force, then matter is nothing and the external world is simply God. In spite of such argument, men will believe that the external world is a reality ? that matter is and that it is the cause of the effects we attribute to its agency.? New Englander, Sept. 1883:552 ? ?Man in early time used second causes, i.e. machines very little to accomplish his purposes. His usual mode of action was by the direct use of his hands or his voice and he naturally ascribed to the gods the same method as his own. His own use of second causes has led man to higher conceptions of the divine action.? Dorner: ?If the world had no independence, it would not reflect

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