such fellowship as presupposes pardon and life. Schleiermacher apparently believed in neither a personal God nor his own personal immortality; see his Life and Letters, 2:77-90; Martineau, Study of Religion, 2:357. Charles Hedge compares him to a ladder in a pit ? a good thing for these who wish to get out, but not for those who wish to get in. Dorner: ?The Moravian brotherhood was his mother; Greece was his nurse.? On Schleiermacher, see Herzog, Realencyclopadie, in voce; Bibliotheca Sacra, 1852:375; 1883:534; Liddon, Elements of Religion, lect. I; Ebrard, Dogmatik, 1:14; Julius Muller. Doctrine of Sin, 1:175; Fisher, Supernat. Origin of Christianity, 563-570; Caird, Philos. Religion, 160-186.
(c) Religion is not, as Kant maintained, morality or moral action; for morality is conformity to an abstract law of right, while religion is essentially a relation to a person, from whom the soul receives blessing and to whom it surrenders itself in love and obedience.
Kant, Kritik der praktischen Vernunft, Beschluss: ?I know of but two beautiful things, the starry heavens above my head, and the sense of duty within my heart.? But the mere sense of duty often distresses. We object to the word ?obey? as the imperative of religion, because
(1) it makes religion a matter of the will only;
(2) will presupposes affection;
(3) love is not subject to will;
(5) it makes the Christian a servant only, not a friend; cf. <431515>John 15:15 ? ?No longer do I call you servants ? but I have called you friends? ? a relation not of service but of love (Westcott, Bib. Com., in loco .). The voice that speaks is the voice of love, rather than the voice of law. We object also to Matthew Arnold?s definition: ?Religion is ethics heightened, enkindled, and lit up by feeling; morality touched with emotion.? This leaves out of view the receptive element in religion, as well as its relation to a personal God. A truer statement would be that religion is morality toward God, as morality is religion toward man. Bowne. Philos. of Theism, 251 ? ?Morality that goes beyond mere conscientiousness must have recourse to religion?; see Lotze, Philos. of Religion 128-142. Goethe: ?Unqualified activity, of whatever kind, heads at last to bankruptcy?; see also Pfleiderer, Philos. Religion, S:65-69; Shedd, Sermons to the Natural Man, 244-246; Lidden, Elements of Religion.
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