makes a sort of conscience for those beneath him. Nature, like Raphael, is producing a Holy Family.?

Jacob Boehme: ?Throw open and throw out thy heart. For unless thou dost exercise thy heart, and the love of thy heart, upon every man in the world, thy self-love, thy pride, thy envy, thy distaste, thy dislike, will still have dominion over thee? In the name and in the strength of God, love all men. Love thy neighbor as thyself, and do to thy neighbor as thou doest to thyself. And do it now. For now is the accepted time, and now is the day of salvation.? These expressions are scriptural and valuable, if they are interpreted ethically, and are understood to inculcate the supreme duty of loving the Holy One, of being holy as he is holy, and of seeking to bring all Intelligent beings into conformity with his holiness.

(d) God?s love is not a merely emotional affection, proceeding from sense or impulse, nor is it prompted by utilitarian considerations.

Of the two words for love in the New Testament, file>w designates an emotional affection, which is not and cannot be commanded ( <431136>John 11:36 ? ?Behold how he loved him!?), while ajgapa>w expresses a rational and benevolent affection which springs from deliberate choice ( <430316>John 3:16 ? ?God so loved the world?; <401919>Matthew 19:19 ? ?Thou shall love thy neighbor as thyself?; 5:44 ? ?Love your enemies?). Thayer, New Testament Lex., 653 Agapa~n ?properly denotes a love founded in admiration, veneration, esteem, like the Lat. diligere, to be kindly disposed to one, to wish one well; but filei~n denotes an inclination prompted by sense and emotion, Lat. amare? Hence men are said ajgapa~n God, not filei~n .? In this word ajga>ph , when used of God, it is already implied that God loves, not for what he can get, but for what he can give. The rationality of his love involves moreover a subordination of the emotional element to a higher law than itself, namely, that of holiness. Even God?s self-love must have a reason and norm in the perfections of his own being.

B. Positively:

(a) The immanent love of God is a rational and voluntary affection, grounded in perfect reason and deliberate choice.

Ritschl, Justification and Reconciliation, 3:277 ? ?Love is will, aiming either at the appropriation of an object, or at the enrichment of its existence, because moved by a reeling of its worth? Love is to persons; it is a constant will; it aims at the promotion of the other?s personal end, whether known or conjectured; it takes up the other?s personal end and

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can be put into a love ? letter, and there is more in true religion than can be expressed either in theology or in worship. Christian worship is communion between God and man. But communion cannot be one-sided. Madame de Sta?h, whom Heine called? a whirlwind in petticoats,? ended one of her brilliant soliloquies by saying: ?What a delightful conversation we have had !? We may find a better illustration of the nature of worship in Thomas A Kempis?s dialogues between the saint and his Savior, in the Imitation of Christ. Goethe: ?Against the great superiority of another there is no remedy but love? To praise a man is to put one?s self on his level.? If this be the effect of loving and praising man, what must be the effect of loving and praising God! Inscription in Grasmere Church: ?Whoever thou art that enterest this church, leave it not without one prayer to God for thyself, for those who minister, and for those who worship here.? In <590127>James 1:27 ? ?Pure religion and undefiled before our God and Father is this, to visit the fatherless and widows in their affliction, and to keep oneself unspotted from the world? ? ?religion,? qrhskoi>a is cultus exterior ; and the meaning is that ?the external service, the outward garb, the very ritual of Christianity, is a life of purity, love and self ? devotion. What its true essence. its inmost spirit may be, the writer does not say, but leaves this to be inferred? On the relation between religion and worship, see Prof. Day, in New Englander, Jan. 1882; Prof. T. Harwood Pattison, Public Prayer; Trench, Syn. N. T, I; sec. 48; Coleridge, Aids to Reflection, Introduction, Aphorism 23; Lightfoot, Galatians, 351, note 2.

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