the background? Evolution working out a nobler and nobler justice is proof that God is just. Here is ?preferential action?.? S. S. Times, June 9, 1900 ? ?The natural man is born with a wrong personal astronomy. Man should give up the conceit of being the center of all things. He should accept the Copernican theory, and content himself with a place on the edge of things ? the place he has always really had. We all laugh at John Jasper and his thesis that ?the sun do move.? The Copernican theory is leaking down into human relations, as appears from the current phrase: ?There are others?.?

(c) Neither justice nor righteousness, therefore, is a matter of arbitrary will. They are revelations of the inmost nature of God, the one in the form of moral requirement, the other in the form of judicial sanction. As God cannot but demand of his creatures that they be like him in moral character, so he cannot but enforce the law which he imposes upon them. Justice just as much binds God to punish as it binds the sinner to be punished.

All arbitrariness is excluded here. God is what he is ? infinite purity. He cannot change. If creatures are to attain the end of their being, they must be like God in moral purity. Justice is nothing but the recognition and enforcement of this natural necessity. Law is only the transcript of God?s nature. Justice does not make law ? it only reveals law. Penalty is only the reaction of God?s holiness against that which Is its opposite. Since righteousness and justice are only legislative and retributive holiness, God can cease to demand purity, and to punish sin only when he ceases to be holy, that is, only when he ceases to be God. ?Judex damnatur cum nocens absolvitur.?

Simon, Reconciliation, 141 ? ?To claim the performance of duty is as truly obligatory as it is obligatory to perform the duty which is prescribed.? E. H. Johnson, Systematic Theology, 84 ? ?Benevolence intends what is well for the creature; justice insists on what is fit. But the well for us and the fit for us precisely coincide. The only thing that is well for us is our normal employment and development but to provide for this is precisely what is fitting and therefore due to us. In the divine nature the distinction between justice and benevolence is one of form.? We criticize this utterance as not sufficiently taking into account the nature of the right. The right is not merely the fit. Fitness is only general adaptation which may have in it no ethical element, whereas right is solely and exclusively ethical. The right therefore regulates the fit and constitutes its standard. The well for us is to be determined by the right for us, but not vice versa. George W. Northrup: ?God is not bound to bestow the same endowments upon creatures, nor to keep all in a state of holiness forever,

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