Kant declares that the idea of freedom is the source of our idea of personality, ? personality consists in the freedom of the whole soul from the mechanism of nature. Lotze, Metaphysics 6244 ? ?So far as, and so long as, the soul knows itself as the identical subject of inward experience, it is and is named simply for that reason, substance.? Illingworth, Personality, Human and Divine, 32 ? ?Our conception of substance is derived, not from the physical, but from the mental world. Substance is first of all that which underlies our mental affections and manifestations.? James, Will to Believe, 80 ? ?Substance, as Kant says, means ?das Beharrliche,? the abiding, that which will be as it has been, because its being is essential and eternal.? In this sense we have an intuitive belief in an abiding substance which underlies our own thoughts and volition?s, and this we call the soul. But we also have an intuitive belief in an abiding substance, which underlies all natural phenomena and all the events of history, and this we call God. Among those who hold to this general view of an intuitive knowledge of God may be mentioned the following: ? Calvin, Institutes, book I, chap. 3; Nitzsch, System of Christian Doctrine, 15-26, 133-140; Julius Muller, Doctrine of Sin, 1:78-84; Ulrici, Leib und Seele, 688-725; Porter, Human Intellect, 497; Hickok, Rational Cosmology, 58-89; Farrar, Science in Theology, 27-29; Bibliotheca Sacra, July, 1872:533, and January, 1873:204; Miller, Fetich in theology, 110-122; Fisher, Essays, 565-572; Tulloch, Christian Belief, 75, 76; Raymond, Syst. Theology, 1:247-262; Bascom, Science of Mind, 256, 247; Knight, Studies in Philos. And Lit, 155-224; A.H. Strong, Philosophy and Religion, 76-89.
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