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modes of the exercise of the will.? A. A. Hodge, Outlines of Theology, 234 ? ?All sin is voluntary in the sense that all sin has its root in the perverted dispositions, desires and affections which constitute the depraved state of the will.? But to Alexander, Edwards, and Hodge, we reply that the first sin was not voluntary in this sense for there was no such depraved state of the will from which it could spring. We are responsible for dispositions, not upon the ground that they are a part of the will, but upon the ground that they are effects of will or, in other words, that past decisions of the will have made them what they are. See pages 504-513.

(b) Deliberate intention to sin is an aggravation of transgression but it is not essential to constitute any given act or feeling a sin. Those evil inclinations and impulses which rise unbidden and master the soul before it is well aware of their nature, are themselves violations of the divine law and indications of an inward depravity which, in the case of each descendant of Adam, is the chief and fatal transgression.

Joseph Cook: ?Only the surface water of the sea is penetrated with light. Beneath is a half-lit region and still further down is absolute darkness. We are greater than we know.? Weismann, Heredity, 2:8 ? ?At the depth of 170 meters, or 552 feet, there is about as much light as that of a starlight night when there is no moon. Light penetrates as far as 400 meters, or 1,300 feet, but animal life exists at a depth of 4,000 meters, or 13,000 feet. Below 1,300 feet, all animals are blind.? Cf . <195106>Psalm 51:6; 19:12 ? ?the inward parts? the hidden parts? hidden faults? ? hidden not only from others but even from ourselves. The light of consciousness plays only on the surface of the waters of man?s soul.

(c) Knowledge of the sinfulness of an act or feeling is also an aggravation of transgression but it is not essential to constitute it a sin. Moral blindness is the effect of transgression and, as inseparable from corrupt affections and desires, does the divine law condemn itself.

It is our duty to do better than we know. Our duty of knowing is as real as our duty of doing. Sin is an opiate. Some of the most deadly diseases do not reveal themselves in the patient?s countenance nor has the patient any adequate understanding of his malady. There is ignorance, which is indolence. Men are often unwilling to take the trouble of rectifying their standards ofjudgment. There is also ignorance, which is intention. Instance many students? ignorance of College laws.

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