material properties, such as extension, hardness, color, weight, etc...The world of material phenomena presupposes a system of immaterial agency. In this immaterial system the individual consciousness originates. This agency, some say, is thought, others will.? A. J. Dubois, in Century Magazine, Dec. 1894:228 ? Since each thought involves a molecular movement in the brain, and this moves the whole universe, mind is the secret of the universe, and we should interpret nature as the expression of underlying purpose. Science is mind following the traces of mind. There can be no mind without antecedent mind. That all human beings have the same menta. modes shows that these modes are not due simply to environment. Bowne: ?Things act upon the mind and the mind reacts with knowledge. Knowing is not a passive receiving, but an active construing.? Wundt: ?We are compelled to admit that the physical development is not the cause, but much more the effect, of psychical development.?
Paul Carus, Soul of Man, 52-64, defines soul as ?the form of an organism,? and memory as ?the psychical aspect of the preservation of form in living substance.? This seems to give priority to the organism rather than to the soul, regardless of the fact that without soul no organism is conceivable. Clay cannot be the ancestor of the potter, nor stone the ancestor of the mason, nor wood the ancestor of the carpenter.
W.N. Clarke, Christian Theology, 99 ? ?The intelligibleness of the universe to us is strong and ever present evidence that there is an all pervading rational Mind, from which the universe received its character.? We must add to the maxim, ?Cogito, ergo sum,? the other maxim, ?Intelligo, ergo Deus est.? Pfleiderer, Philos. Relig., 1:273 ? ?The whole idealistic philosophy of modern times is in fact only the carrying out and grounding of the conviction that Nature is ordered by Spirit and for Spirit, as a subservient means for its eternal ends; that it is therefore not, as the heathen naturalism thought, the one and all, the last and highest of things, but has the Spirit, and the moral Ends over it, as its Lord and Master.? The consciousness by which things are known precedes the things themselves, in the order of logic, and therefore cannot be explained by them or derived from them. See Porter, Human Intellect, 22, 131, 132. McCosh, Christianity and Positivism, chap. on Materialism; Divine Government, 71-94; Intuitions, 140-145. Hopkins, Study of Man, 53-56; Morell, Hist. of Philosophy, 318-334; Hickok, Rational Cosmology, 403; Theol. Eclectic, 6:555; Appleton, Works, 1:151-154; Calderwood, Moral Philos., 235; Ulrici, Leib und Seele, 688-725, and synopsis, in Bap. Quar., July, 1873:380.
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