Mosaic only in the sense of being a gradually growing body of traditional law, which was codified as late as the time of Ezekiel, and, as the development of the spirit and teachings of the great lawgiver, was called by a legal fiction after the name of Moses and was attributed to him. The actual order of composition is therefore: (1) Book of the Covenant (Exodus 20-23); (2) Deuteronomy; (3) Leviticus. Among the reasons assigned for this view are the facts

(a) that Deuteronomy ends with an account of Moses? death, and therefore could not have been written by Moses;

(b) that in Leviticus Levites are mere servants to the priests, while in Deuteronomy the priests are officiating Levites, or, in other words, all the Levites are priests;

(c) that the books of Judges and of I Samuel, with their record of sacrifices offered in many places, give no evidence that either Samuel or the nation of Israel had any knowledge of a law confining worship to a local sanctuary. See Kuenen, Prophets and Prophecy in Israel; Wellhausen, Geschichte Israels, Band 1; and art.; Israel, in Encyclopedia Brit., 1:1:398, 399, 415; W. Robertson Smith, Old Testament in Jewish Church, 306, 386, and Prophets of Israel; Hastings, Bible Dictionary, arts.; Deuteronomy, Hexateuch, and Canon of the Old Testament

It has been urged in reply,

(1) that Moses may have written, not autographically, but through a scribe (perhaps Joshua), and that this scribe may have completed the history in Deuteronomy with the account of Moses? death;

(2) that Ezra or subsequent prophets may have subjected the whole Pentateuch to recension, and may have added explanatory notes;

(3) that documents of previous ages may have been incorporated, in course of its composition by Moses, or subsequently by his successors;

(4) that the apparent lack of distinction between the different classes of Levites in Deuteronomy may be explained by the fact that, while Leviticus was written with exact detail for the priests, Deuteronomy is the record of a brief general and oral summary of the law, addressed to the people at large and therefore naturally mentioning the clergy as a whole;

(5) that the silence of the book of Judges as to the Mosaic ritual may be explained by the design of the book to describe only general history, and by the probability that at the tabernacle a ritual was observed of which the people

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