Classics), 139, 140. On personal identity, see Bp. Butler, Works (Bohn?s ed.) 327-334.
(c) As deism tends to atheism, so the doctrine of continuous creation tends to pantheism. Arguing that, because we get our notion of force from the action of our own wills, therefore all force must be will, and divine will, it is compelled to merge the human will in this all-comprehending will of God. Mind and matter alike become phenomena of one force, which has the attributes of both and, with the distinct existence and personality of the human soul, we lose the distinct existence and personality of God, as well as the freedom and accountability of man.
Lotze tries to escape from material causes and yet hold to second causes, by intimating that these second causes may be spirits. But though we can see how there can be a sort of spirit in the brute and in the vegetable, it is hard to see how what we call insensate matter can have spirit in it. It must be a very peculiar sort of spirit ? a deaf and dumb spirit, if any ? and such a one does not help our thinking. On this theory the body of a dog would need to be much more highly endowed than its soul. James Seth, in Philos. Rev., Jan. 1894:73 ? ?This principle of unity is a veritable lion?s den ? all the foot prints are in one direction. Either it is a bare unity ? the One annuls the many or it is simply the All ? the non-unified totality of existence.? Dorner well remarks that ?Preservation is empowering of the creature and maintenance of its activity, not new bringing it into being.? On the whole subject, see Julius Muller, Doctrine of Sin, 1:220- 225; Philippi, Glaubenslehre, 2:258-272; Baird, Elohim Revealed, 50; Hodge, Systematic Theology, 1:577-581, 595; Dabney, Theology, 338, 339.
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