imagining, how the two are related. Mind still continues to us a something without kinship to other things.? Owen, Anatomy of Vertebrates, quoted by Talbot, Bap. Quar., Jan. 1871:5 ? ?All that I know of matter and mind in themselves is that the former is an external center of force, and the latter an internal center of force.? New Englander, Sept. 1883:636 ? ?If the atom be a mere center of force and not a real thing in itself, then the atom is a supersensual essence, an immaterial being. To make immaterial matter the source of conscious mind is to make matter as wonderful as an immortal soul or a personal Creator.? See New Englander, July, 1875:532-535; Martineau, Study, 102-130, and Relig. and Mod. Materialism, 25 ? ?If it takes mind to construe the universe, how can the negation of mind constitute it??

David J. Hill, in his Genetic Philosophy, 200, 201, seems to deny that thought precedes force, or that force precedes thought: ?Objects, or things in the external world may be elements of a thought process in a cosmic subject, without themselves being conscious...A true analysis and a rational genesis require the equal recognition of both the objective and the subjective elements of experience, without priority in time, separation in space or disruption of being. So far as our minds can penetrate reality, as disclosed in the activities of thought, we are everywhere confronted with a Dynamic Reason.? In Dr. Hill?s account of the genesis of the universe, however, the unconscious comes first, and from it the conscious seems to be derived. Consciousness of the object is only the obverse side of the object of consciousness. This is, as Martineau, Study, 1:341, remarks, ?to take the sea on board the boat.? We greatly prefer the view of Lotze, 2:641 ? ?Things are acts of the Infinite wrought within minds alone, or states which the Infinite experiences nowhere but in minds...Things and events are the sum of those actions which the highest Principle performs in all spirits so uniformly and coherently, that to these spirits there must seem to be a world of substantial and efficient things existing in space outside themselves.? The data from which we draw our inferences as to the nature of the external world being mental and spiritual, it is more rational to attribute to that world a spiritual reality than a kind of reality of which our experience knows nothing. See also Schurman, Belief in God, 208, 225.

4. In so far as this theory holds the underlying force of which matter and mind are manifestations to be in any sense intelligent or voluntary, it renders necessary the assumption that there is an intelligent and voluntary Being who exerts this force. Sensations and ideas, moreover, are explicable only as manifestations of Mind.

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