freewill, not being subject to technical laws cannot have its acts predicted or foreknown. God knows things only in their causes ? future events only in their antecedents. John Milton seems also to deny God?s foreknowledge of free acts: ?So without least impulse or shadow of fate, or ought by me immutable foreseen, They trespass.?
With this Socinian doctrine some Armenians agree, as McCabe, in his Foreknowledge of God, and in his Divine Nescience of Future Contingencies a Necessity. McCabe, however, sacrifices the principle of free will, in defense of which he makes this surrender of God?s foreknowledge, by saying that in cases of fulfilled prophecy, like Peter?s denial and Judas?s betrayal, God brought special influences to bear to secure the result, so that Peter?s and Judas?s wills acted irresponsibly under the law of cause and effect. He quotes Dr. Daniel Curry as declaring that ?the denial of absolute divine foreknowledge is the essential complement of the Methodist theology, without which its philosophical incompleteness is defenseless against the logical consistency of Calvinism. See also article by McCabe in Methodist Review, Sept. 1892:760-773. Also Simon, Reconciliation, 287 ? ?God has constituted a creature, the actions of which he can only know as such when they are performed. In presence of man, to a certain extent, even the great God condescends to wait; nay more, has himself so ordained things that he must wait, inquiring, ?What will he do???
So Dugald Stewart: ?Shall we venture to affirm that it exceeds the power of God to permit such a train of contingent events to take place as his own foreknowledge shall not extend to?? Martensen holds this view, and Rothe, Theologische Ethik, 1:212-234, who declares that the free choices of men are continually increasing the knowledge of God. So also Martineau, Study of Religion, 2:279 ? ?The belief in the divine foreknowledge of our future has no basis in philosophy. We no longer deem it true that even God knows the moment of my moral life that is coming next. Even he does not know whether I shall yield to the secret temptation at midday. To him life is a drama of which he knows not the conclusion.? Then, says Dr. A. J. Gordon, there is nothing so dreary and dreadful as to be living under the direction of such a God. The universe is rushing on like an express train in the darkness without headlight or engineer ? at any moment we may be plunged into the abyss. Lotze does not deny God?s foreknowledge of free human actions, but he regards as insoluble by the intellect the problem of the relation of time to God, and such foreknowledge as ?one of those postulates as to which we know not how they can be fulfilled.? Bowne, Philosophy of Theism, 159 ? ?Foreknowledge of a free act is a knowledge without assignable grounds
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